1.1 Temperature: The
temperature of a substance
is a measure of the mean
translational kinetic energy
associated with the
disordered microscopic
motion of its constituent
atoms or molecules.
1.2 A thermodynamic temperature
scale is one that does not
depend on properties of
substances that are used to
measure temperature. e.g.
kelvin
2 Equations of State
2.1 An equation of state for a
thermodynamic system is a
mathematical relationship
between state variables
2.1.1 Isotherm - plot p vs V const T.
Isobar - plot V ts T. const p.
Isochors - plot p vs T. const V
2.2 EQUATION OF STATE FOR AN IDEAL GAS
2.2.1 p V = n R T
2.3 VAN DER WAALS EQUATION OF STATE
2.3.1 ( P + (a(n^2))/(v^2) )●(V-nb) = n R T
2.3.1.1 nb = molecular
volume . so the
volume for
molecules
around it = V -
nb.
3.1 Heat: a measure of the energy
transferred between two
systems as a result of a
temperature difference
3.1.1 Heat Transfer Mechanisms =
radiation, conduction,
convection
3.1.1.1 STEFAN BOLTZMANN LAW FOR
POWER RADIATED
3.1.1.1.1 P = Ɛ σ A (T^4)
3.1.2 HEAT TRANSFER RATE = Q dot = dQ/dT
3.1.2.1 Q dot = ( κ A / L ) ( T_1 - T_2 )
= - κ A (dT/dx)
3.1.2.1.1 THERMAL RESISTANCE = R_TH = L / κ A
3.2 SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY
3.2.1 Δ Q = c M Δ T
3.2.2 Specific Heat Cap = c
Heat Capacity = C
3.2.3 Specific Heat Capacity
depends on Temperature
so you use derivatives to
define it.
3.2.3.1 c_p (T) = (1/M) (δ Q / d T) _ p
3.2.3.2 c_V (T) = (1/M) (δ Q / d T) _ V
4 Kinetic Theory of Gases
4.1 Assumptions
4.1.1 Molecular radius small compared with avg distance between
molecules. Constant rapid motion. Obey Newtons Laws. No force
acting between - all collisions perfectly elastic. Container walls are
perfectly rigid and infinitely massive. Gas in equilibrium.
4.1.2 Isotropic = same in all directions
4.1.2.1 < (V_x) ^2 > = 1/3 < V^2>
4.2 p V = 1/3 m N < V^2 > = 1/3 m N V^2 _rms
4.2.1 Comapring this to pressure eqn ( p V = N k_b T ) gives k_b T = 1/3 m < V ^2 > = 2/3 E_TR
4.2.1.1 E_TR = MEAN TRANSLATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY / MOLECULE
4.2.1.1.1 E_TR = 1/2 m <V ^2> = 3/2 k_b T
4.3 INTERNAL ENERGY ASSUME: no
intermolecular forces, no rotational
or vibrational KE