Psychological Disorders

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Created by heavenstaar almost 4 years ago


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Resource summary

Psychological Disorders
1 Medical Model - proposes that it is useful to think of mental illness as a disease.
1.1 • Diagnosis – distinguishing one illness from another.
1.2 • Etiology – cause and developmental history of an illness or disorder; origin
1.3 • Prognosis – prediction about the probably course of an illness.
2 Criteria
2.1 Deviance: different from what people in the person’s society/culture/religion consider normal.
2.2 Maladaptive Behaviour: interferes with one’s social or occupational functioning.
2.3 Personal Distress: Person with the disorder is suffering as a result.
3 Psychodiagnosis and Prevalence
3.1 Comorbidity- occurs when a person has two or more diagnoses at the same time.
3.1.1 Epidemiology - study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population Prevalence – percentage of population that has a disorder during a specific time period Lifetime prevalence – percentage of people that ever had the disorder in their lives.
4 Anxiety Disorders
4.1 Generalized Anxiety Disorder – chronic high level of anxiety about various life matters. Some expect that worrying about things will somehow decrease the possibility of a negative outcome.
4.2 Phobic Disorders – Unlike GAD, phobic disorder is a fear of something specific. It is a persistent, irrational fear of an object or situation that actually present no realistic danger.
4.3 Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia – Panic Disorder occurs when one has recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that occur suddenly and unexpectedly and begins to fear these attacks.
4.4 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - Obsessions refer to thoughts that one cannot stop thinking about.
4.5 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: This occurs if one has a horrifying experience where they believed they could have died or witnessed someone’s death.
5 Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
5.1 1. Biological factors • Genetic predisposition, anxiety sensitivity • Need GABA circuits in the brain functioning well to remain calm. Valium affects GABA • Concordance rates - Percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder.
5.2 2. Conditioning and learning • Acquired through classical conditioning (pairing an event with fear) or observational learning • Maintained through operant conditioning – usually negative reinforcement
5.3 3. Cognitive factors - Judgments of perceived threat 4. Stress is a precipitator of anxiety disorders
6.1 Somatization Disorder: (now called Somatic Symptom Disorder) • person has many physical complaints but appear to be psychological in origin.
6.2 Conversion Disorder • Psychological problems converted to physical symptoms. • Significant loss of physical function with no medical reason
6.3 Hypochondriasis (now called Illness anxiety disorder) • Patient is constantly on guard for a medical symptom and misinterprets minor body
7.1 1. Dissociative amnesia – issue of memory, Individuals can lose some or all of their memory including who they are.
7.1.1 2. Dissociative fugue – issue of memory and travel. Person is usually found in a different city and they have no memory of how they got there or who they are. 3. Dissociative identity disorder – formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder.
8 Mood DIsorders
8.1 1. Major depressive disorder Symptoms include sad mood for at least 2 weeks, disinterest in activities that usually bring the person pleasure
8.1.1 2. Dysthymic disorder - (now known as Persistent Depressive Disorder) one has less symptoms of depression but it is chronic and continues for at least 2 years. 3. Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder) Alternates between depression and mania Symptoms of mania: elevated or irritable mood, sleep little and still have adequate energy, talkative, racing thoughts, 4. Cyclothymic disorder – less severe form of bipolar disorder
8.2 Rates of Mood Disorders – up to 10% of Canadians will have a major depressive episode sometime in their lives.
8.2.1 Mood Disorders and Suicide - Women attempt suicide 3 x more often than men. However, men complete suicide 4 times more than women.
9 Etiology of Mood Disorders
9.1 • Genetic vulnerability - Mood disorders run in families and it is generally believed that one must have a genetic vulnerability to get them.
9.1.1 • Biological and Neurochemical factors – One may have a predisposition toward abnormally low chemical levels in the brain such as serotonin and norepinephrine. • Hormonal factors - Stesses results in high cortisol levels which may result in depression
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