1 Medical Model - proposes that it
is useful to think of mental illness
as a disease.
1.1 • Diagnosis – distinguishing
one illness from another.
1.2 • Etiology – cause and developmental
history of an illness or disorder; origin
1.3 • Prognosis – prediction about the
probably course of an illness.
2.1 Deviance: different from what people in the person’s society/culture/religion consider normal.
2.2 Maladaptive Behaviour: interferes with one’s social or occupational functioning.
2.3 Personal Distress: Person with the disorder is suffering as a result.
3 Psychodiagnosis and Prevalence
3.1 Comorbidity- occurs when a person has two or
more diagnoses at the same time.
3.1.1 Epidemiology - study of the distribution of mental or
physical disorders in a population
126.96.36.199 Prevalence – percentage of population that has
a disorder during a specific time period
188.8.131.52.1 Lifetime prevalence – percentage of people that ever
had the disorder in their lives.
4 Anxiety Disorders
4.1 Generalized Anxiety Disorder – chronic high level of
anxiety about various life matters. Some expect that
worrying about things will somehow decrease the
possibility of a negative outcome.
4.2 Phobic Disorders – Unlike GAD, phobic
disorder is a fear of something specific. It
is a persistent, irrational fear of an
object or situation that actually present
no realistic danger.
4.3 Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia –
Panic Disorder occurs when one has
recurrent attacks of overwhelming
anxiety that occur suddenly and
unexpectedly and begins to fear these
4.4 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder -
Obsessions refer to thoughts
that one cannot stop thinking
4.5 Post Traumatic Stress
Disorder: This occurs if one
has a horrifying experience
where they believed they
could have died or witnessed
5 Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
5.1 1. Biological factors • Genetic predisposition, anxiety
sensitivity • Need GABA circuits in the brain
functioning well to remain calm. Valium affects GABA
• Concordance rates - Percentage of twin pairs or other
pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder.
5.2 2. Conditioning and learning • Acquired through classical
conditioning (pairing an event with fear) or
observational learning • Maintained through operant
conditioning – usually negative reinforcement
5.3 3. Cognitive factors -
Judgments of perceived
threat 4. Stress is a
precipitator of anxiety
6 SOMATOFORM DISORDERS
6.1 Somatization Disorder: (now called Somatic
Symptom Disorder) • person has many
physical complaints but appear to be
psychological in origin.
6.2 Conversion Disorder • Psychological
problems converted to physical symptoms.
• Significant loss of physical function with no
6.3 Hypochondriasis (now called Illness
anxiety disorder) • Patient is constantly on
guard for a medical symptom and
misinterprets minor body
7 DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
7.1 1. Dissociative amnesia – issue of
memory, Individuals can lose some or
all of their memory including who they
7.1.1 2. Dissociative fugue – issue of memory and
travel. Person is usually found in a different
city and they have no memory of how they
got there or who they are.
8.1 1. Major depressive disorder Symptoms include
sad mood for at least 2 weeks, disinterest in
activities that usually bring the person pleasure
8.1.1 2. Dysthymic disorder - (now known as
Persistent Depressive Disorder) one has
less symptoms of depression but it is
chronic and continues for at least 2 years.
184.108.40.206 3. Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder)
Alternates between depression and mania Symptoms
of mania: elevated or irritable mood, sleep little and
still have adequate energy, talkative, racing thoughts,
220.127.116.11.1 4. Cyclothymic disorder – less severe form of bipolar
8.2 Rates of Mood Disorders – up to 10% of
Canadians will have a major depressive
episode sometime in their lives.
8.2.1 Mood Disorders and Suicide - Women
attempt suicide 3 x more often than men.
However, men complete suicide 4 times
more than women.
9 Etiology of Mood Disorders
9.1 • Genetic vulnerability - Mood disorders run in families and
it is generally believed that one must have a genetic
vulnerability to get them.
9.1.1 • Biological and Neurochemical factors – One may have
a predisposition toward abnormally low chemical levels
in the brain such as serotonin and norepinephrine.
18.104.22.168 • Hormonal factors - Stesses results in
high cortisol levels which may result in