Teleological argument

 ELeanor Turner
Mind Map by , created over 3 years ago

Mind map on the Teleological Argument from William Paley and Aquinas and all its criticisms and supporters. AS level Philosophy and Ethics

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 ELeanor Turner
Created by ELeanor Turner over 3 years ago
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Teleological argument
1 Design argument for the existence of God
1.1 Telos- end/purpose
1.2 Aquinas
1.2.1 Aquinas' fifth way
1.2.1.1 Unintelligent being needs an intelligent being to guide it towards its end purpose
1.2.1.1.1 God is the intelligent being
1.2.2 Example- the arrow being shot towards the target by the archer
1.3 William Paley
1.3.1 Two types of design arguments:
1.3.1.1 Design qua regularity
1.3.1.1.1 Gravity
1.3.1.1.2 Rotation of planets
1.3.1.2 Design qua purpose
1.3.1.2.1 Lacteal system in mammals- feed the amount of young
1.3.1.2.2 The eye- to see
1.3.1.2.3 Birds wings- to fly
1.3.2 Analogy of the watch
1.3.2.1 Watch has a purpose
1.3.2.1.1 To tell the time
1.3.2.1.1.1 Must have a designer
1.3.2.1.1.1.1 Watchmaker
1.3.2.1.1.1.2 The universe has a purpose
1.3.2.1.1.1.2.1 Therefore must have an intelligent designer
2 Modern arguments
2.1 Arthur Brown
2.1.1 Ozone layer is perfectly made for life
2.1.1.1 i.e. keeps gases in
2.1.1.1.1 It has a purpose
2.2 F.R Tennant
2.2.1 Anthropic principle
2.2.1.1 Order in nature suggests design not chance
2.2.1.1.1 Made for man to flourish
2.2.1.1.1.1 If it was any different we would not be here
2.2.1.1.2 More likely to be a designer than chance
2.2.2 Aesthetic principle
2.2.2.1 Beauty etc, not needed for survival
2.2.2.1.1 Must have been added in by a nice designer
2.3 Swinburne
2.3.1 Probabilities
2.3.1.1 More probable that the universe was designed than it occurred by random chance
2.3.1.1.1 God is the simplest explanation
2.3.1.1.1.1 Oculus razor
2.3.1.1.1.1.1 The simplest explanation is probably correct
2.3.1.2 Example of the mad man and the card machine
2.3.1.2.1 Card machines with a revolvers attatched
2.3.1.2.1.1 Mad man says that if the card machine produces anything but an ace, you will get shot
2.3.1.2.1.1.1 He turns on the machines, they all draw aces
2.3.1.2.1.1.1.1 You do not get shot
2.3.1.2.1.1.1.2 You must however question how this is possible for all of the machines to produce the right cards
2.3.1.2.1.1.1.2.1 Just like you must question the universe and how everything is so perfect
2.3.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1 It needs an explanation
3 Counter arguments
3.1 Mill
3.1.1 If there was no suffering there would be a good designer
3.1.1.1 God isn't good if he created a world of suffering
3.1.1.1.1 No design qua regularity as there is no order in nature
3.1.1.2 Natural disasters
3.1.1.2.1 Manmade disasters are overmatched by natural disasters
3.1.1.2.1.1 "Nearly all the things which men are hanged or imprisoned for doing to one another are nature's everyday performances"
3.1.1.2.1.1.1 Men are hanged for less than nature's everyday destruction
3.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 "Nature, red in tooth and claw"- Alfred Tennyson
3.1.1.2.1.1.2 "Anarchy and the reign of terror are overmatched in injustice, ruin, and death by a hurricane and a pestilence"
3.1.1.3 Killer animals and insects
3.1.1.3.1 "pass their existence in tormenting and devouring other animals"
3.1.1.3.1.1 Digger wasp
3.1.1.3.1.2 Whales
3.1.1.3.1.2.1 Don't eat whole whale
3.1.1.3.1.3 Cats
3.1.1.3.1.3.1 Play before eating
3.1.1.3.1.3.1.1 Cruel and pointless
3.2 Hume
3.2.1 What kind of designer can we infer?
3.2.1.1 No evidence of just one god
3.2.1.1.1 Work of several lesser Gods?
3.2.1.2 Anthropomorphic God?
3.2.1.2.1 Human like
3.2.1.3 Imperfections and suffering in the world
3.2.1.3.1 Cruel, impotent or non-moral God
3.2.1.3.1.1 "First rude attempt of an infant deity, then abandoned"
3.2.2 Problems with using analogy
3.2.2.1 They are weak methods of reasoning
3.2.2.1.1 Can only go so far
3.2.2.1.2 Similar effects don't necessarily imply similar causes
3.2.2.1.2.1 Choose the analogy, you choose the conclusion
3.2.2.1.3 Watch analogy doesn't relate to the universe
3.2.2.1.3.1 Universe is not mechanic
3.2.2.1.3.1.1 It is organic, growing and changing
3.2.2.1.3.1.1.1 More like a vegetable
3.2.3 Alternative theory
3.2.3.1 Epicurean hypothesis
3.2.3.1.1 Could have occurred by chance
3.2.3.1.1.1 Marbles example
3.2.3.1.1.1.1 Throw marbles until a pattern forms randomly
3.2.3.1.1.1.1.1 If not present during the throwing
3.2.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Would presume it was designed not random
3.2.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Can't know if the universe was designed or occurred by chance because we were not present
3.3 Darwinism
3.3.1 Natural selection
3.3.1.1 Evolving and adapting for purpose
3.3.1.1.1 Beneficial mutations
3.3.1.1.1.1 Pass on to offspring
3.3.1.1.1.1.1 Galapagos finches
3.3.1.1.1.1.2 Moths in the industrial revolution
3.3.1.1.1.2 Dawkins
3.3.1.1.1.2.1 Blind watch maker
3.3.1.1.1.2.1.1 No purpose in mind when evolving
3.3.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 No vision or foresight
3.3.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 A watchmaker in nature would be a blind watchmaker
3.3.1.1.1.2.1.1.2 Natural selection is a unconscious and blind process
4 Supporting arguments
4.1 Hoyle
4.1.1 The probability of life on earth
4.1.1.1 "No greater than the chance that a hurricane would blow through a scrapyard and produce a Boeing 747"
4.2 Paley's responses
4.2.1 Broken watch: something doesn't have to work correctly to infer a design or designer
4.2.2 We didn't see the universe made: just because we haven't seen it doesn't mean it was not designed
4.2.3 Somethings dont have a purpose: even if we don't understand the purpose doesn't mean there is no purpose, there still is one
4.2.4 Might have occured by chance: unlikely universe would have occurred by chance due to all the purpose in it
4.3 Morowitz
4.3.1 The chance of a protein molecule occurring by chance is 1/10 x 236

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