German Foreign Policy (1890-1914)


Mind Map on German Foreign Policy (1890-1914), created by akaur25 on 01/31/2014.
Mind Map by akaur25, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by akaur25 over 9 years ago

Resource summary

German Foreign Policy (1890-1914)
  1. The European Alliance System
    1. Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (1882)
      1. Reinsurance Treaty 1887 between Russia and Germany
        1. The Franco-Russian Alliance (1894): improved France's national security against a German invasion. The alliance was a threat to Germany - war on two fronts.
          1. Anglo-German relations: The Kaiser congratulated the President of Transvaal for the independence from Britain.This was a tactless interference - Britain reluctant on trusting Germany.
          2. Weltpolitik 1897-1904(World Policy)
            1. The grand plan involving both continental and overseas expansion in order to attain world power.
              1. Achievements: Between 1897 and 1904 the real achievements of Weltpolitk were very limited.
                1. Chinese port of Kiaochow (1897) - naval base
                  1. Islands in the Pacific
                  2. The end of British splendid isolation: led to - Anglo-japanese Alliance (1902) = Britain able to withdraw naval forces in the Pacific. - Anglo-French Agreement (1904) = co-operation between countries.Germany and Britain was no longer close - fear of encirclement?
                    1. Anglo-German agreement did not happen because Bulow thought that it would lead to war with France and Russia
                    2. Place in the sun?
                    3. International Crises and Tensions 1904-11
                      1. The first Moroccan Crisis 1905-6: Morocco an accepted French sphere of influence was a place of economic interest for Germany. The Germans demanded an international conference - discuss future of Morocco = hoping to drive a wedge between France & Britain.Germans also attempted to drive Russians away from their friendship with the French (Treaty of Bjorko 1905) but the opposite happened.
                        1. Humiliation for the Germans, caused the resigning of Foreign Minister Friedrich von Holestein.
                        2. Triple Entente (1907): Alliance between Britain, France & Russia suggest Germany's fear of encirclement as powerful European countries had formed an alliance as a defensive approach against Germany's aggression.
                          1. Anglo-German differences: Bethmann recognised that an agreement with Britain to limit naval construction would reduce Germany's financial difficulties, at the same time loosen Britain from the Triple Entente. Both sides saw the advantages from the settlement but the demands were high between 1909-1911 negotiations: Britain wanted Germany to reduce navy expansion whilst Germany demanded Britain to promise neutrality in the event of attack upon France and Russia.
                            1. Impossible for both countries to accept these conditions.
                          2. The Second Moroccan Crisis (1911): in Feb 1909 - French & German governments signed an agreement to respect each other's interests in Morocco. in 1911 - French military intervened in the town of Fez. As a result, Germany attempted to bully France into surrendering the French Congo in return Germany would give up all interests in Morocco.
                            1. Germany gained two strips of land in the Congo.
                            2. The Bosnian Crisis: Austria (1908) attempted to annex the regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to deal with the Serbs. The Serbs and the Russian Govt. was furious with the annexation as the peace in the Balkans had finished (made in 1897). In February 1909 - Austria Hungary (supported by Germany) forced Serbia & Russia to recognise the annexation by threatening war against Serbia. Russia was too weak for war due to 1905 Revolution = had to accept the annexation
                              1. A diplomatic triumph for Germany because the victory of Austria, in support of Germany strengthened their alliance. Russia & Serbia humiliated - did not want to be humiliated again. Doubts within the Triple Entente about the true purpose of German foreign policy.
                              2. Navy Rivalry (1909): Anglo-German relations reached low points = Bosnian crisis but also Britain's worry about German Navy expansion. Germany felt threatened by the creation of HMS Dreadnought, therefore invested in expanding the Navy = more battleships. Led to an arms race in 1913 = an uneasy relationship, Britain saw the German gala expansion as a threat.
                                1. in 1909: British Govt. set budget to build 9 Dreadnought - battle class ships in the year.
                              3. 1911-14: The Final Years of Peace
                                1. Fischer argues that 1911 was an important year for German foreign policy because it was evident after 1991 the real motives and aims of Germany led directly to war in August 1914.
                                  1. The Balkans War 1912-13: changed the international atmosphere
                                    1. Turkey had lost nearly all of its European territory
                                      1. Serbia doubled in size but felt resentful at the creation of Albania - blaming Austria for denying its access to the sea. = Austria fear that its state was threatened by the expansionist Serbia.
                                        1. Russia won diplomatic victory from Serbia's military victory.
                                          1. The Army Bill of June 1913 increased the German army's size by 170,000 troops = French and Russian also increased army.
                                          2. The 'War Council;' 1912 meeting: the increasing sense of isolation and encirclement of the Triple Entente led to a failed attempt to reach an Anglo-German rapprochement.
                                            1. British Minister of War, Lord Haldane warned the German ambassador in London that Britain would stand by France unconditionally in the event of a continental war.
                                              1. War Council supports Fischer's view of Germany's intentions to fight a war at a time most suitable to German military. The meeting included Kaiser and his top military staff: Molkte, Tirpitz and Admiral Muller
                                                1. Kaiser insisted that Austria should be supported in her actions against Serbia. If Russia decided to fight then so be it Austria would be supported by Turkey, Romania, Albany and Bulgaria, leaving Germany to deal with France and Britain. Molkte thought war against Russia was 'inevitable' - the sooner the better? Whilst Tirpitz suggested that the navy needed 12-18 months for further development.
                                                  1. 1914-15 best time for war as France and Russia's reforms wouldn't come into affect till 1916
                                                2. The Arms Race: By 1912 it was clear that Germany could not afford and not win the naval race - Navy Law 1912
                                                  1. Concern for Germany's capacity to fight war on land against France & Russia. This led to increase in the Army Law 1912-13 = 663,000 to 800,00 men
                                                  2. The mood of 1914: Germany had been forging closer friendship with Austria and in early months of 1914 Russo-German alliance was worsening. Bethmann was encouraged by the peaceful settlement of several colonial disputes = success in war? This suggest plan for war certainly existed - Schlieffen Plan (developing for 20yrs)?
                                                  3. July Crisis 1914
                                                    1. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand - heir of the Austrian throne was a shocked to the world and sparked the crisis that lead to WW1.
                                                      1. The Blank Cheque: on 5-6th July, Kaiser and Bethmann gave their unconditional support to Austria. This urged Austria to send harsh ultimatum and take immediate action against Serbia. Serbia was accepted most conditions apart from Austrian police patrolling Serbian territory.
                                                        1. Bethmann saw July Crisis to be the perfect time for Austria to dominate power over Serbia - weakening Russia and the Triple Entente.
                                                          1. Britain attempted to mediate by calling an international conference = Germany ignored the proposal.
                                                          2. Misunderstanding between German leaders: Kaiser proposed that the Austrians should 'halt in Belgrade' and negotiate on basis of Serbian reply to Austrian Govt. Yet German generals encouraged to use military initiatives.Moltke and generals recognised that once Russia started mobilise - Germany would become committed to war.
                                                            1. 28July: Austria declared war on Serbia; 29th July Partial mobilisation by Russia - led to full mobilisation on 31st July. 1st August German declaration war on Russia, 3rd August German declaration of war on France & invasion of Belgium. 4th August Britain declared war on Germany.
                                                              1. Schliefen Plan: prevent war on two fronts as the plans consisted of achieve in all out assault in the west in order to defeat France before Russia could mobilise. Thought it would take 6 weeks to defeat France and 6 weeks for Russian army to mobilise. However, the plan was a failure as Russian mobilisation was fast, took 15 days and invasion in France took longer.
                                                                1. For the plan to work, it was necessary to invade through Belgium (neutral) - Britain demanded withdrawal of German troops - did not happen = Britain declared war on Germany.
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