Chemistry IGCSE

Mind Map by gamer292, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by gamer292 almost 4 years ago


Going over some of the key elements needed for the upcoming exam

Resource summary

Chemistry IGCSE
1 Li - Crimson Red flame
2 Na - Yellow-Orange flame
3 K - Lilac Flame
4 Ca - Brick-Red flame
5 Dip clear platinum loop in HCL (aq)
6 Hold in a roaring blue flame
7 Wait till it burns with no colour
8 Dip in sample then place in flame
9 Test for coloured precipitate with Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
9.1 Copper 2+ Ions - Blue precipitate
9.1.1 Cu 2+ (aq) + 2OH- (aq) → Cu(OH)2 (s)
9.2 Iron 3+ ions - Reddish-Brown precipitate
9.2.1 Fe 3+ (aq) + 3OH- (aq) → Fe(OH)3 (s)
9.3 Iron 2+ ions - Sludgy green precipitate
9.3.1 Fe 2+ (aq) + 2OH- (aq) → Fe(OH)3 (s)
10 Ammonium Compound + NaOH = Ammonia!
10.1 Usually smells of cat urine
10.1.1 Check using litmus paper Damp red litmus paper blue NH4 give off ions which react with the litmus paper making it blue as it is an alkaline
11 Test for Anions
11.1 Test for Carbonates
11.1.1 Add dilute Hydrochloric acid (aq) to the test sample If carbonates are present then carbon dioxide will be released Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy (Test) CO3 (s) + 2H (aq) → CO2 (g) + H2O (l)
11.2 Test for Sulfates
11.2.1 Add dilute Hydrocholoric acid (aq) then barium chloride solution A white precipitate means the compound was origanally a sulfate Ba (aq) + SO (aq) → BaSO4 (S)
11.3 Test for Halides
11.3.1 To test for chloride, bromide or iodide ions, add dilute nitric acid (aq) then add silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) Chloride Ion gives a White Precipitate of Silver Chloride Bromide ion gives a Cream precipitate of Silver Bromide Iodide ion gives a Yellow Precipitate of Silver Iodide Ag (aq) + I (aq) → AgI (S) Ag (aq) + Br (aq) → AgBr (S) Ag (aq) + Cl (aq) → AgCl (S)
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