Modals

Almudena Alameda
Mind Map by Almudena Alameda, updated more than 1 year ago
Almudena Alameda
Created by Almudena Alameda over 5 years ago
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Description

First Certificate FCE (Grammar) Mind Map on Modals, created by Almudena Alameda on 04/27/2016.

Resource summary

Modals
  1. STRONG OBLIGATION

    Annotations:

    • Other ways: - To make someone do something - To be compulsory.
    1. Present/Future
      1. Must

        Annotations:

        • Obligations imposed by the speaker
        1. You must brush your teeth before you go to bed
        2. Have to/Have got to

          Annotations:

          • Obligations not imposed by the speaker
          1. I´ve got to do some homework tonight (my teacher says so) I have to do some homework tonight
        3. Past
          1. Had to

            Annotations:

            • Past and reported obligations
            1. We were told we had to get a visa before we left on holiday
        4. WEAK OBLIGATION
          1. Present/Future
            1. Should do/Ought to

              Annotations:

              • No difference in meaning
              1. You ought to/should write home more frequently
            2. Past
              1. Should have done/Ought to have done

                Annotations:

                • For criticism or regret, because an action didn´t happen.
                1. We should have bought/ought to have bought your sister a car for her birthday
            3. ASKING FOR AND GIVING PERMISSION

              Annotations:

              • Other ways: - To allow someone to do - To permit someone to do - To let someone do
              1. Can/Could/May

                Annotations:

                • Can: More usual Could: a bit more polite May: Quite formal
                1. Can/May/Could I borrow your bike? Yes, you can/may
              2. PROHIBITION

                Annotations:

                • Other ways: - To forbid someone to do something - To ban someone from doing something . To not allow someone to do something - To not permit someone to do something - To not let someone do something Imperative: - Don´t cycle on the pavement!
                1. Present/Future
                  1. Musn´t/Can´t

                    Annotations:

                    • When something is forbidden
                    1. You musn´t cross the road without looking
                      1. Eliza can´t go out this evening (her father says so)
                    2. Past
                      1. Was not to/Couldn´t
                    3. SPECULATION AND DEDUCTION
                      1. Speculate about something the speaker in unsure
                        1. Could/Might/May
                          1. I could be a sea eagle, though the feathers look too dark
                        2. Certainty
                          1. Must
                            1. The car must be doing eover 50 mph at least!
                          2. Certainty, in relation to impossible ideas and situations
                            1. Can´t/Cannot/Couldn´t/Could not
                              1. They couldn´t possible be here before lunchtime
                            2. Questions, to speculate about something
                              1. Couldn´t/Could not
                                1. Couldn´t it be a computer error?
                              2. Uncertainty, in the past
                                1. Could have/Might have/May Have
                                  1. I think I may have met you before
                                2. Certainty that something in the past was impossible or didn´t happen
                                  1. Couldn´t have/Can´t have
                                    1. It can´t have been raining, as the path is completely dry
                                  2. Near-certainty about something in the past
                                    1. Must have
                                      1. It must have been cold that winter
                                  3. MAKING A SUGGESTION

                                    Annotations:

                                    • It´s time.../It´s about time.../It´s high time... Always in simple past, even when we are talking about the present or the future - It´s time you went to bed (you need to go to bed now) Infinitive with "to" after "it´s time...", if we are speaking in general termsIt´s time to go (everybody needs t go now)
                                    1. I suggest...
                                      1. ...(that) you (should) cut down on coffee
                                        1. ...cutting down on coffee
                                        2. I recommend...
                                          1. ...(that) you (should) relax a little more
                                            1. ...relaxing
                                            2. What about/How about...
                                              1. ...doing some reading?
                                              2. Why don´t you try...
                                                1. ...doing some reading?
                                                2. Have you thought of...
                                                  1. ...playing a musical instrument?
                                                3. GIVING ADVICE
                                                  1. You should...
                                                    1. ...try to watch what you eat
                                                    2. You ought to...
                                                      1. ...get some rest
                                                      2. You´d better...
                                                        1. ...book a place in the gym
                                                        2. If I were you...
                                                          1. ...I´d try to do more exercise
                                                          2. My advice to you is...
                                                            1. ...to go to the doctor´s
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