Teleological Argument

ellen.harrison
Mind Map by ellen.harrison, updated more than 1 year ago
ellen.harrison
Created by ellen.harrison about 6 years ago
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Philosophy (Teleological Argument) Mind Map on Teleological Argument, created by ellen.harrison on 02/05/2014.
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Teleological Argument
1 An argument that tries to prove God's existence by looking at things in the universe and showing that they have been designed for some reason or purpose
1.1 Design qua regularity - 'design' relating to regularity
1.1.1 Archer regulating arrow towards the target
1.1.2 AQUINAS
1.1.2.1 Five ways
1.1.2.2 Everything is directed to some goal and follows natural laws, whether it is intelligent or not. These natural laws that direct all things set up by a thinking being - God.
1.2 Design qua purpose - 'design' as relating to purpose
1.2.1 Designed for a purpose, chair.
1.2.2 PALEY
2 Aquinas - Way five
2.1 1. We see that everything in the natural world follows natural laws
2.1.1 even if not thinking, concious beings (trees)
2.1.2 When we drop something it falls to earth - gravity
2.2 2. If things follow natural laws they tend to do well, have some goal/purpose
2.3 3. If something is not conscious, thinking being, it does not have any goal/purpose unless directed by something else that thinks
2.3.1 Arrow directed by the archer
2.3.2 trees bear fruit and reproduce, reaching a goal/purpose, yet not thinking conscious beings
2.3.3 They cannot think about what goal they have to try to reach, as they have no conscious
2.4 4. Everything in the natural world that does not think for itself heads towards its goal/purpose through direction by something that does think
2.4.1 GOD!
2.4.2 If it did not then why do they appear to reach a goal purpose for example, trees bearing fruit and reproducing, and how do they do well
3 Design qua regularity
3.1 Aquinas' argument in favour
3.2 Based on fact that nature follows certain laws that lead to certain results
3.3 Natural laws examples of 'regularities of sucession'
3.3.1 Events follow scientific laws that are predictable, regular and unvarying.
3.4 Paley on design qua regularity
3.4.1 Evidence from astronomy and Newton's laws of motion and gravity to prove design in the universe
3.4.2 Rotation of planets in solar system - obey same universal laws and hold orbits because of gravity - not by chance
3.4.3 Concluded that external agent must have imposed order on universe as a whole
3.4.3.1 God!
3.4.4 An a posterior argument - based on own experiences
4 Weaknesses in Aquinas' argument
4.1 Assumptions without evidence to support
4.2 Assumes everything follows a general law set down by designer
4.2.1 Could be argued that the natural world is just the way it is, no intrinsic need for a designer
4.3 Assumes things in natural world have some purpose/goal
4.3.1 Never provides examples to back things up.
4.4 Assumes God is source of regularity and natural laws
4.4.1 Assuming there is a God, but there might not have to be
5 William Paley - Design qua purpose
5.1 Things in natural world are designed to fit purpose
5.1.1 Watch - telling the time.
5.2 The watch has a purpose - to tell the time
5.3 The parts work together - they are fit for a purpose
5.4 The parts are ordered - put together in a certain way to make the watch function.
5.5 If the parts were arranged differently the watch would not function - not fulfil it's purpose
5.6 Watch had a maker who must have existed and put the watch together for a purpose
5.7 If watch goes wrong it doesn't matter, the point is that the watch's existence suggests it was designed for a purpose
5.7.1 Evil in the world
5.8 Just as design of watch necessitates a designer, so the complexity of the whole nature necessitates a much greater designer
5.8.1 Complexity of nature far greater than any man made mechanism, whole of nature needs a grand designer - God
5.9 Watch - A watch is a machine designed for the purpose of telling the time THEREFORE The features of the design in the watch suggest an intelligent designer
5.9.1 Eye - The natural world shows evidence of complex, purposeful design THEREFORE the universe must have a highly intelligent designer - God
6 Hume's rejections of Paley
6.1 Analogy limited in strength to points of similarity between things being compared
6.1.1 No similarity to watch and universe
6.2 Comparing to a manufactured object implies several Gods rather than one God, since they are made in several stages by several people
6.3 Universe made on own accord rather than made by hand
6.4 To discuss design of the universe is illogical as God is beyond human understanding - could never understand God
6.5 Equally possible that 'matter may contain the spring of order originally within itself, as well as mind does'
6.6 Any effects observed may be caused by wide variety of causes.
6.7 This universe may be one attempt among a number of others
6.8 There is apparent evidence of design, could come as a result of chaos
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