Physics P3

zekaghaj01
Mind Map by zekaghaj01, updated more than 1 year ago
zekaghaj01
Created by zekaghaj01 about 6 years ago
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A-Level Physics Mind Map on Physics P3, created by zekaghaj01 on 02/16/2014.
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Physics P3
1 Electrical energy
1.1 Energy is transferred from cells
1.2 Power=rate of energy transfer
1.2.1 Energy transferred=power X time
1.3 Kilowatts
1.3.1 Energy transferred in kilowatt hours
1.3.1.1 Energy transferred= Power X time (in hours)
2 Electrical energy
2.1 Power= Voltage X current
2.2 efficiency = Energy usefully transferred/ Total Energy supplied X 100
3 Saving energy
3.1 Stop heat escape housing
3.1.1 Installing cavity wall, loft insulation, Double glazing and drought proofing
3.1.1.1 Expensive to do so
3.2 Turn lights off, energy saving light bulbs
4 Energy sources
4.1 Non renewable
4.1.1 Fossil fuels
4.1.1.1 C02 global warming
4.1.1.1.1 Acid rain damages trees' soil
4.1.1.1.1.1 Oil spillings damage ecosystems
4.1.1.2 However these are cheap and make lots of energy
4.1.2 Nuclear fuels
4.1.3 Will run out damage to environment
4.2 Renewables
4.2.1 Wind/ wave/ tides/hydroelectic/solar
4.2.1.1 Wind
4.2.1.1.1 turbines have own generator
4.2.1.1.1.1 Wind turns them.
4.2.1.1.2 No pollution
4.2.1.1.2.1 Do spoil view
4.2.1.1.3 1500 turbines to replace one coal power station
4.2.1.1.4 Can be noisy
4.2.1.1.5 initial costs high
4.2.1.1.6 Wind stops, power stops
4.2.1.2 Solar
4.2.1.2.1 Energy made from sunlight
4.2.1.2.1.1 No pollution
4.2.1.2.1.1.1 Sunny countries Very good
4.2.1.2.1.1.1.1 Remote places
4.2.1.2.2 Expensive initially
4.2.1.2.3 Not practical
4.2.1.3 Wave
4.2.1.3.1 Lots of small turbines
4.2.1.3.1.1 No pollution
4.2.1.3.1.2 Damage to the view
4.2.1.3.1.2.1 Hazards to boats
4.2.1.3.1.3 Never used large scale
4.2.1.3.2 Tidal, big dams with turbines
4.2.1.3.2.1 Tide comes in drives turbine
4.2.1.3.2.1.1 Energy is sun and moons gravity.
4.2.1.3.2.2 No pollution
4.2.1.3.2.2.1 Spoils view alters habitat
4.2.1.4 Hydroelectic
4.2.1.4.1 Flood a valley
4.2.1.4.2 Costs high
4.2.1.4.2.1 No pollution
4.2.1.4.3 Water stored, above turbines in dam
4.2.1.4.3.1 Gravity pulls water down through turbines
4.2.1.4.3.1.1 generator converts movment (kinetic) of turbine into electicity
4.2.2 Biofuels Geothermal
4.2.2.1 Biofuels
4.2.2.1.1 Burnt to heat water, make steam, spins turbine
4.2.2.1.2 Plant waste
4.2.2.1.3 Plants take in co2 but expel it when burn, balance process
4.2.2.2 Geothemal
4.2.2.2.1 Hot rocks
4.2.2.2.1.1 water pumped down to hot rocks, returned as steam, drives turbine
4.2.2.2.2 Costs to drill down to rocks
4.2.3 Never run out
5 Generators
5.1 Moving magnet in coil of wire
5.1.1 induces a voltage
5.1.1.1 This is called electomagnetic induction
5.1.1.1.1 As you move magnet magnetic field through the coil changes
5.1.1.1.1.1 This change induces a voltage, and a current flows in the wire
5.2 Magnet spins in coil of wire
5.2.1 magnetic field changes
5.2.1.1 inducing voltage
5.2.1.1.1 Spin magnet faster
5.2.1.1.1.1 requires more energy from turbine
6 National grid
6.1 Network of pylons and cables
6.1.1 Electrical energy taken to homes
6.2 Allows energy to be generated anywhere on the grid
6.3 Huge amounts need either a High current or High voltage
6.3.1 Problem with a high current
6.3.1.1 lots of energy lost with heat
6.3.2 Much cheaper to transport with high voltage
6.3.2.1 keeps current very low
6.3.2.1.1 Reduces energy lost
6.3.2.2 Voltage needs to be reduced before it gets to homes
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