Applying to Right to Child/IVF

Hannah Grinnall
Mind Map by Hannah Grinnall, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Grinnall
Created by Hannah Grinnall about 5 years ago


AS - Level Ethics (Right to Child) Mind Map on Applying to Right to Child/IVF, created by Hannah Grinnall on 05/24/2016.

Resource summary

Applying to Right to Child/IVF
  1. Natural Law
    1. Opposes IVF- goes against primary precepts
      1. Reproduction- only take place in marriage, between husband and wife. IVF involves 3rd party (doctor) therefore is wrong. surrogacy is also wrong for same reason
        1. Protection of innocent life- IVF results in destruction of spare embryos (Catholics believe in life from conception)
          1. also goes against sanctity of life as spare embryos are destroyed
          2. Situation Ethics
            1. approves of IVF as e.g. of humans using 'innovation' and tech to help
              1. doesn't approve of spare embryos being destroyed as not most loving thing
              2. Utilitarianism
                1. don't approve IVF because success is so low = pain of not being able to have child
                  1. unused embryos may be caused pain if they have sentience as they're destroyed
                    1. surrogacy- would giving up child be painful? at 18 child is allowed to find donor parent which may be distressing for family
                      1. is it fair to use resources to help wealthy westerners have children when people in Africa are starving. should look at happiness of majority and feed starving not IVF
                      2. Categorical Imperative (Kantian ethics)
                        1. doesn't allow IVF
                          1. universalisability- can't universalise as not every woman wants/needs IVF/children
                            1. Treat people as ends- using doctor and embryo as means to an end
                            2. doesn't allow surrogacy
                              1. universalisability- can't universalise as not all women want/need surrogate
                                1. Kant believed everyone should be treated with respect and dignity, no one exploited or enslaved. if pay for surrogate baby is being treated like property and enslaved
                                  1. using surrogate and baby as means to an end
                                2. Church
                                  1. 10 years after 1st test tube baby Pope welcomed Louise as 'unique' and 'special' person but didn't approve of process she came about because:
                                    1. involved playing God
                                      1. used embryos are destroyed, don't have chance at life like Louise
                                        1. process of IVF doesn't show human life dignity and respect required
                                        2. Paul Ramsey (Methodist) IVF is a 'refusal of God's image in our own', life should be created by husband and wife with aid of God
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