Psychological explanations of SZ

diana.m1629
Mind Map by diana.m1629, updated more than 1 year ago
diana.m1629
Created by diana.m1629 over 6 years ago
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GCE Schizophrenia Mind Map on Psychological explanations of SZ, created by diana.m1629 on 02/21/2014.
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Psychological explanations of SZ
1 COGNITIVE THEORIES
1.1 maladaptive thinking linked to symptoms
1.1.1 Acknowledges role of bio factors in creating initial sensory experiences.
1.1.1.1 schizophrenics seek advice from others, but when they fail to confirm reality of experiences, they start to think people are hiding the truth i.e. delusions of persecution
1.1.1.1.1 provides vital link between biological & psychological explanations, providing better understanding of SZ & leads to development of better therapies.
1.1.1.1.1.1 machine produces virtual hallucinations to show the SZ that their hallucinations are not real.
1.1.1.2 neural circuits involving limbic system involved in inability of SZ's to integrate sensory inputs with stored memories. distress leads to dopamine production which then influences the functioning of these brain areas, suggesting a link between biological & cognitive factors
1.1.1.2.1 support from study finding link between excess dopamine in prefrontal cortex & working memory.
1.1.2 Hemsley's model proposes breakdown in cognitive processing, leading to schemas not being activated.
1.1.2.1 sensory overload
1.1.2.1.1 can't determine what to attend to or ignore
1.1.2.1.1.1 leading to delusions & thoughts seem not to originate from memory so interpreted as arising externally i.e. disordered thinking/experiences of control.
1.1.2.1.1.1.1 inclusion of cognitive impairement in diagnostic criteria would improve validity & treatment by targeting cognitive enhancement as a primary goal.
1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 study found people with SZ perform poorly on test where desire to read colour a word is written in is suppressed in order to read out the actual word. suggest positive symptoms for SZ are a failure of willed action, with behaviour determined by irrelevant stimuli.
2 FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS
2.1 Contradictory messages from parents prevent development of internally coherent construction of reality
2.1.1 withdrawal & flattened affect
2.1.1.1 studies found that schizophrenics reported higher recall of double bind than non-schozophrenics
2.1.1.1.1 recall may have been affected by their SZ
2.1.1.1.2 other studies found no difference in parental communication between normal families & families with SZ child.
2.2 SZ associated with high degree of EE (hostility, criticism etc.)
2.2.1 patients returning to families with high EE are 4 x more likely to relapse
2.2.1.1 supports idea that high EE contirbutes to development & persistence of SZ.
2.2.2 negative climate leads to stress beyond their already impaired coping mechanisms.
2.2.2.1 more empirical support than double bind theory.
2.2.2.1.1 issue of whether EE is cause or effect of SZ. EE may occur due to stresses & conflicts associated with living with a SZ. rather than contributing to its onset.
2.2.2.1.1.1 adoption study found kids with SZ bio parents were more likely to become ill themselves, but this only emerged when the adopted family was rated as disturbed. Illness only manifested itself under appropriate environmental conditions, supporting importance of family relationships in development.
2.2.2.2 leads to effective family therapies where relatives shown how to reduce levels of high EE. found such therapies significantly reduce relapse rates, supporting the theory that this may be a cause for SZ.
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