1.1.1 Acknowledges role of bio
factors in creating initial
184.108.40.206 schizophrenics seek advice from
others, but when they fail to confirm
reality of experiences, they start to
think people are hiding the truth i.e.
delusions of persecution
220.127.116.11.1 provides vital link
SZ & leads to
to show the SZ
are not real.
18.104.22.168 neural circuits involving limbic
system involved in inability of SZ's to
integrate sensory inputs with stored
memories. distress leads to
dopamine production which then
influences the functioning of these
brain areas, suggesting a link
between biological & cognitive factors
22.214.171.124.1 support from
study finding link
prefrontal cortex &
1.1.2 Hemsley's model
to schemas not
126.96.36.199.1.1 leading to delusions & thoughts seem not to originate
from memory so interpreted as arising externally i.e.
disordered thinking/experiences of control.
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 inclusion of cognitive impairement in
diagnostic criteria would improve validity
& treatment by targeting cognitive
enhancement as a primary goal.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 study found people with SZ perform poorly
on test where desire to read colour a word is
written in is suppressed in order to read out
the actual word. suggest positive symptoms
for SZ are a failure of willed action, with
behaviour determined by irrelevant stimuli.
2.1 Contradictory messages
from parents prevent
development of internally
coherent construction of
2.1.1 withdrawal &
18.104.22.168 studies found that
recall of double bind
22.214.171.124.2 other studies found no difference
in parental communication
between normal families &
families with SZ child.
2.2 SZ associated with
high degree of EE
(hostility, criticism etc.)
2.2.1 patients returning
to families with
high EE are 4 x
more likely to
126.96.36.199 supports idea that
high EE contirbutes
to development &
persistence of SZ.
2.2.2 negative climate leads to
stress beyond their already
impaired coping mechanisms.
188.8.131.52 more empirical
184.108.40.206.1 issue of whether EE is cause or
effect of SZ. EE may occur due to
stresses & conflicts associated
with living with a SZ. rather than
contributing to its onset.
220.127.116.11.1.1 adoption study found kids with SZ bio parents were more likely
to become ill themselves, but this only emerged when the
adopted family was rated as disturbed. Illness only manifested
itself under appropriate environmental conditions, supporting
importance of family relationships in development.
18.104.22.168 leads to effective family therapies where relatives shown how to reduce levels
of high EE. found such therapies significantly reduce relapse rates, supporting
the theory that this may be a cause for SZ.