"generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth"
Biological diversity – or biodiversity – is the term given to the variety of life on Earth. It is the variety
within and between all species of plants, animals and micro-organisms and the ecosystems within
which they live and interact. WWF
America is the continent that has the most countries rich in biodiversity: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador,
Mexico, Peru, Venezuela and the United States. For its part, in Asia, the countries with the greatest
bio-diversity are China, Indonesia, India, Philippines and Malaysia. In Africa, Madagascar, Democratic
Republic of Congo and South Africa. And, lastly, Oceana has Australia and Papua New Guinea. These
countries, together are home to more than 70% of the planet's bio-diversity! and their territory is
only 10% of the earth's surface.
COLOMBIA:It is known for having roughly 54,871 different species, which comprise one of the richest
bio-diversities on the planet. The natural forests form 53% of the territory and have 324 different
types of ecosystems. Currently, up to 1,500 different species are in danger of extinction, therefore
measures must also be taken in order to maintain its rich biodiversity.
MEXICO:Home to between 10 and 12% of the species of the planet. Why does it have these fantastic
biodiversity statistics? Because of its privileged geographic position, the variety of climates and its
complex topography, which have propitiated a wide variety of conditions. Additionally, it is one of the
countries with the longest coastlines and has its own exclusive sea "the Golf of California", which is
the largest reef in the world.
AUSTRALIA:The interesting thing about Australia, is that despite being mainly desert or, at least,
semi-arid, it has a wide variety of habitats that also include tropical jungles. Its climates are
extremely variable, but thanks to the isolation in time experimented by other continents, this means
that 85% of the flowering plants, 84% of the mammals, over 45% of the birds, and 90% of the fish
from the temperate coastal regions (where the most bio-diversity is contained) are endemic.
BRAZIL:It is the country with the greatest bio-diversity of flora and fauna on the planet. Brazil has the
highest number of species of known mammals and freshwater fish, and more than 50,000 species of
trees and bushes, it takes first place in plant diversity. Even so, the loss of tropical forest (due to
uncontrolled agriculture and logging) is still on the rise.
MADAGASCAR:70% of species that inhabit these islands are totally unique in the world. Its great
richness of biodiversity goes from lemurs, mongoose, chameleons, bats, foxes... Additionally, during
the last decade 40 mammals, 69 amphibians, 61 reptiles, 42 invertebrates and 385 new plants were
discovered within its territory. Even so, 75% of its forests have disappeared over the last few
decades; therefore urgent measures must be taken to stop this phenomenon.