1.1 He was a self-influenced English philosopher. He thought that the only
way for people to live was if they were governed by a king. Hobbes said
that there was a a social contract between the king and the people. His
main written work is "Leviathan" and "The Matter, Form and Power of a
Commonwealth Ecclesiastical and Civil".
2 John Locke (1632-1704)
2.1 John Locke was an English philosopher who's main idea was that all humans
were born with 3 basic natural rights (life, liberty and property) and that the
government role was to protect this rights. He was inspired by the social
contract of Hobbes, but refused the idea that the kings had the divine right
to rule. One of his main written works is "Second Treatise on Government"
3 Montesquieu (1685-1755)
3.1 Montesquieu was a French writer and a political
theorist, he created the divition of power to protect the
natural rights (Locke) and to avoid government abuse.
The government was divided in 3 (Executive, Legislative
and Judiciary). His most famous book is "The Spirit of
4 Voltaire (1694-1778)
4.1 He was a French writer who proposed the Religious Tolerance
(the separation of the government from the church). Voltaire
influenced the political area. His most famous work is
"Candide". The French writer was inspired by Hobbs, Locke and
5 Jean Jacques- Rousseau (1712-1778)
5.1 He was a swiss writer and philosopher. He said that the
government was based on a contract (Hobbes), but if the
government didn't protect the natural rights (Locke), people
could back out of the social contract and create a new
6 Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
6.1 Diderot was a French writer, philosopher and an encyclopedist. He was
one of the leading figures in the Enlightenment. Diderot's ideas were
more progressive than those of most of his contemporaries. Diderot was
an editor of the Encyclopedia,he believed that the knowledge of all
things(arts, science, etc.) should be available to the public instead of
being monopolized by academics, politicians or churches, he also wrote
"An Essay on Blindness".
7 Adam Smith (1723-1790)
7.1 He was a Scottish philosopher and political
economist. Smith's idea was that a nation's
wealth should be judged by the total of its
production and commerce. His main book is "The
Wealth of Nations", in which he writes the first
comprehensive system of political economy.
8 Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
8.1 Mary Wollstonecraft was an English writer who
advocated for women's equality. She wrote a book "A
Vindication of the Rights of Woman" that pressed for
equality in educational reforms. Her ideas were
revolutionary and caused controversy at that time.