Methods and approaches

Cecilia González
Mind Map by Cecilia González, updated more than 1 year ago
Cecilia González
Created by Cecilia González almost 5 years ago
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Methods and Approaches for Language Teaching

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Methods and approaches
  1. Method

    Annotations:

    • A careful or organized plan that controls the way something is done
    1. Grammar Translation

      Annotations:

      • Language is for understanding the literature. Translation is the way to learn the language. Oral communication is not primarily important. Written language is superior ton spoken language. Students also learn the structure of their own native language. Those who study a foreign language become more cultured and intellectual.
      1. The Silent Way

        Annotations:

        • Cognitive psychology is the basis. Language learning is not habit formation. Is rule formation. Language learning has a sequence from the known to the unknown.Students induce the rules from examples and the languages they are exposed to, therefor elearning is inductive.
        1. Community Language learning

          Annotations:

          • Advocates a holistic approach to language learning. "True human learning" is both cognitive and affective. This is termed  "whole person learning". A group of ideas concerning the psychological requirements for successful and "non-defensive” learning  are collected under the acronym SARD (Security, Attention & Aggression, Retention & Reflection, Discrimination)
          1. Total physical response

            Annotations:

            • Language is primarily oral. It is just li!e the acquisition of native language.Learners first listen (silent period), then oral production starts. Oral communication is crucial.Skilful use of imperatives by the instructor can be helpful for the acquisition of many vocabulary items and grammatical structures. 1sher views the ver" and particularly the ver" in theimperative as the central linguistic motif around which language use and learning areorganised.
            1. Direct

              Annotations:

              • Born as a reaction to 3TM Because 3TM cannot prepare learners for real life language situationsin which oral communication is the media. Inductive learning is essential. There is a direct relation between form and meaning. L2 learning is similar to L1 acquisition. There is a direct exposure to the target language. Exposure of Long chunks in the target language. Learning occurs naturally. Language is for oral use. Each language is unique. There is a directrelation between form and meaning. No other language should interfere when learning a language
              1. Suggestopedia

                Annotations:

                • People use  5- 10 %of their mental capacity. in order to maKe better use of our mental reserves, limitations need to be desuggested. Students should eliminate the feelings that they cannot be successful and thus, to help them overcome the barriers to learning. Psychological barriers should  be removed
                1. Audio-lingual

                  Annotations:

                  • Learning is based on the principles of Behaviourism. Habit Formation is essential. Rules are induced from examples. Explicit grammar rules are not given. Learning is inductive.Habit formation is actualised by means of repetitions and other mechanical drills. Language is based on descriptive linguistics. Every language is seen as its own unique system. The system is comprised of several different levels.  phonological,morphological, and syntactic-. There is a natural order of skills. 1. Listening, 2. Speaking, 3.Reading, 4. Writing. Everyday speech and oral s!ills are important. Perfect pronunciation is required. Language is primarily for Oral Communication.
                  1. Communicative Approach

                    Annotations:

                    • Little is known about the learning theory of "The Communicative Approach". Activities that involve real communication promote learning. Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process. Language is for communication. The goal of language teaching is todevelop Hcommunicative competenceH. Using the language appropriately in social contexts is important and communicative competence should be acquired.
                  2. Approach

                    Annotations:

                    • The techniques and activities you decide to use to learn a language
                    1. Communicative

                      Annotations:

                      • Languague is rule governed. The emphasis is on cognitive behavior
                      1. Affective- Humanistic

                        Annotations:

                        • Learning a foreign language is a process of self realization and of relating to other people
                        1. Comprehension

                          Annotations:

                          • Language acquisition occurs if and only if the goal of the language teaching is communication
                          1. Communicative

                            Annotations:

                            • The purpose of language ( the goal of teaching ) is communication.
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