Crime and Deviance exam

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Mind Map on Crime and Deviance exam, created by anna-wheatley20 on 03/10/2014.

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Created by anna-wheatley20 over 5 years ago
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Crime and Deviance exam
1 Crime- behaviour that breaks the formal written laws of society. If someone commits a crime they can be arrested, charged and prosecuted. Actions can be illegal but no deviant. examples:
1.1 Murder
1.2 speeding in your car
1.3 drug dealing
1.4 Rape
1.5 possession of fire arms
1.6 benefit fraud
1.7 Theft
2 Deviance- behaviour which does not comply with the dominant norms of a specific society. If people are seen as deviant it can lead to negative sanctions such as being told off or ridiculed. examples:
2.1 Spitting in public
2.2 swearing in public
2.3 Taking drugs
2.4 Being naked in public
2.5 Fighting in the street
2.6 A parent hitting a child
3 Sociological research
3.1 Stanley Cohen's Mods and Rockers-
3.1.1 Originated from Cohen's interest in the youth culture and what was a perceived as a potential threat to society
3.1.2 In each era a group emerged to fit the 'criteria', such as teddy boys, mods and rockers, skinheads and hells angels.
3.1.3 the groups all become associated with different types of violence which provoked public reaction. examples of this would be, football hooliganism, drug abuse, vandalism, political demonstrations.
3.1.4 focusing on Mods and rockers (1960's) and the treatment that they received in the public eye. they were seen as a threat to law and order largely through the way mass media presented them.
3.1.5 it was a study of societal reaction towards the "mods and rockers" which involved numerous youths at the seaside resort: Clacton at Easter, 1964
3.1.6 media used "symbolic shortlands" such as hair styles, items of clothing, modes of transport, etc as icons of troublemakers
3.2 "Folk devils and moral panics"
3.2.1 moral panic occurs when a "condition", episode, person or group of people emerge to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests
3.2.2 based on a false or exaggerated idea that some groups behaviour is deviant and is a menace to society. Cohen used the term "folk devils" to refer to the groups.
4 functionalist views on crime and deviance
4.1 1) conformity- members of society conform to the norms of the rest of society and try to achieve success through the normal means e.g. working hard at school. 2) Innovation- people who feel that they cannot possibly achieve through the normal route try new ways of making money, in most cases this is a life of crime. 3)Ritualism- people who feel they cant achieve because they have few job prospects, but also cant turn to innovation might lower their goals and aspirations. this is considered deviant because they have rejected society's norms and values by creating their own lower goals. 4) people who cannot possibly earn success and feel there is no way to do so might retreat from society, or 'drop out'. resign to failure and often turn to drug or alcohol abuse. 5) people who cannot succeed but do not want to just admit defeat might rebel and try to create their own society with new goals and means.
4.1.1 Merton (1968) "strain theory"
4.2 Durkheim
4.2.1 crime is inevitable and often functional.
4.2.2 sometimes crime can be beneficial for society like martin Luther kings civil rights movement of the 1960's
4.2.3 criminal justice system reinforces integration to social laws/rules of condemning deviance.
4.3 messner and Rosenheld (1994)
4.3.1 if a country promotes civic values such as duty then crime would be lower- can apply to the UK
4.3.2 the crime rate is so high in America because of the high value places on materialism.
5 Marxists views on crime and deviance
5.1 defined by the ruling class and used as a means of social control. If you don't conform then you will be punished
5.2 Marxists would also argue that different social classes are policed differently, with the working class heavily policed in the expectation that they will be more criminal and therefore raising the chances of their crimes being detected.
5.3 marxists believe that certain groups and people are targeted by the police: ethnic minorities, those in poverty, the young and conspicuous and those is certain postcode areas.

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