Energy supply, demand and insecurity

emmajackson95
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Energy Mind Map on Energy supply, demand and insecurity, created by emmajackson95 on 04/29/2013.

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emmajackson95
Created by emmajackson95 over 6 years ago
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Energy supply, demand and insecurity
1 Energy sources
1.1 Fossil fuels
1.1.1 Finite, non renewable energy resources
1.1.2 Exploitation through quarrying, mining and pumping
1.1.3 Coal, natural gas, nuclear fission and crude oil
1.1.4 Concerns: contributes GHGs to the atmosphere, CCS is complex, possible health risks (e.g. Chernobyl), difficult disposal of nuclear waste, peak oil?
1.2 Renewable sources
1.2.1 Solar energy, ocean energy, wind energy, HEP, geothermal energy
1.2.2 Concerns: takes up a lot of land so destroys habitats, NIMBY, unaesthetically pleasing, expensive, high maintenance costs, locations are limited
1.3 Recyclable sources
1.3.1 Sustainable - e.g. reprocessed uranium and plutonium, biofuels and biomass
1.3.2 Renewable stock replenished with careful management
1.3.3 Close to being carbon neutral as although they emit carbon dioxide, sources reabsorb it when regrown
2 Energy consumption
2.1 Factors affecting the use of energy resources
2.1.1 Energy availabilty
2.1.1.1 Modern types of energy are either unavailable or inaccessible for some nations lacking the necessary infrastructure
2.1.1.2 Adapting to varying climates can increase energy consumption e.g. air conditioning
2.1.1.3 The highest solar output is found near the equator, but local cloud cover also affect this
2.1.1.4 Poverty and electricity access are inversely related - 2.1 billion still without electricity
2.1.2 Energy affordability
2.1.2.1 Often modern energy sources are more expensive than tradition sources like wood and animal dung
2.1.2.2 Rural areas prefer biomass as it is free and readily available
2.1.3 Cultural preferences
2.1.3.1 Tradition slows the adoption of modern energy sources - e.g. many people in the UK still use an open coal/wood fire
2.2 Distribution of energy sources
2.2.1 Solar potential
2.2.1.1 High around the equator and between the tropics
2.2.2 Wind potential
2.2.2.1 High where the largest fetches are found - Southern ocean, South Pacific ocean, Arctic ocean
2.2.3 Wave power
2.2.3.1 Greater than 50 kW/m along the South African coast, coast of New Zealand and South American coast
2.2.4 Natural gas reserves
2.2.4.1 1. Russia, 2. Iran, 3 Qatar
2.2.5 Oil reserves
2.2.5.1 1. Saudi Arabia, 2. Canada, 3. Iran
2.2.5.2 The Middle East is the largest player with the greatest output and reserves - Saudi Arabia accounts for 22% of the world's oil
2.2.5.3 Geopolitical power
2.2.6 Coal reserves
2.2.6.1 1. USA, 2. Russia, 3. China
2.2.6.2 China builds 2 medium coal power stations a week - doubling consumption since 1900
2.2.6.3 China's carbon emissions exceed that of the USA's
2.2.7 Nuclear power
2.2.7.1 1. Australia, 2 Kazakhstan, 3 USA
3 Energy demand
3.1 Sources of demand
3.1.1 Oil
3.1.1.1 Mainly for transport
3.1.1.2 Electricity, industry and commercial/residential use
3.1.2 Coal
3.1.2.1 Mainly for electricity
3.1.2.2 Industry and commercial/residential use
3.1.3 Gas
3.1.3.1 Mainly for electricity and residential use
3.1.3.2 Transport and industry
3.1.4 Biomass
3.1.4.1 Mainly for commercial/residential use
3.1.4.2 Transport, electricity and industrial use
3.1.5 Nuclear
3.1.5.1 For generating electricity
3.1.6 Hydro
3.1.6.1 For generating electricity
3.2 Rising consumption
3.2.1 Increased demand = increased consumption
3.2.2 During the 1900s, demand increased ten fold
3.2.3 Rising living standards
3.2.4 Population growth
3.2.5 Economic growth and industrial change
3.3 Future trends
3.3.1 China and India are expected to have the largest energy demands
3.3.2 Western nations may reduce demand with increased energy efficiency due to rising costs
3.3.3 Energy consumption in the developing world will double by 2020
4 Energy security
4.1 Risks
4.1.1 Physical
4.1.1.1 Disruption of pathways by natural disasters
4.1.1.2 Exhaustion of reserves
4.1.2 Environmental
4.1.2.1 Protests due to environmental damage caused
4.1.3 Economic
4.1.3.1 Price spikes
4.1.3.2 Exhaustion of domestic supplies forcing increased imports
4.1.4 Geopolitical
4.1.4.1 Political instability in energy-producing regions
4.1.4.2 Disputes over sovereignty
4.2 Energy Security Index (ESI)
4.2.1 Availability
4.2.1.1 Amount and longevity of each nation's oil and gas supplies and the reliance on imports
4.2.2 Diversity
4.2.2.1 Range of resources used to meet the energy demand
4.2.3 Intensity
4.2.3.1 The degree to which the economy of a nation is dependent on oil and gas
4.3 Characteristics of risk
4.3.1 Heavy importers of oil and gas show high risk
4.3.2 Countries with substantial reserves have low risk
4.3.3 Medium sized developed nations show medium risk due to their diversity of energy sources
4.3.4 The BRICs share a similar risk to the more advanced economies
4.3.5 Many African nations have low levels of risk due to low levels of consumption and untapped resources
4.3.6 The USA has a very high risk level due to huge consumption and reliance on imports

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