Particles

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Physics Unit 1

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jhhoward
Created by jhhoward over 5 years ago
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Particles
1 Hadrons
1.1 have sub-structure (non-fundamental)
1.1.1 Made up of QUARKS
1.1.1.1 Triplets
1.1.1.1.1 Baryons
1.1.1.1.1.1 Protons
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 2 Up Q
1.1.1.1.1.1.2 1 Down Q
1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Only stable baryon
1.1.1.1.1.1.4 All baryons decay to protons
1.1.1.1.1.2 Neutrons
1.1.1.1.1.2.1 decay into protons
1.1.1.1.1.3 Antibaryons not found in ordinary matter
1.1.1.1.1.4 Baryon no. in particle interactions never changes
1.1.1.2 Quark Antiquark Pair
1.1.1.2.1 Mesons
1.1.1.2.1.1 Unstable
1.1.1.2.1.2 BN = 0
1.1.1.2.1.3 Pions
1.1.1.2.1.3.1 lightest
1.1.1.2.1.3.2 discovered in cosmic rays
1.1.1.2.1.3.3 Produced in high energy particle collisions
1.1.1.2.1.4 Kaons
1.1.1.2.1.4.1 Heavier
1.1.1.2.1.4.2 More unstable than pions
1.1.1.2.1.5 Interact with baryons via strong interaction (force)
1.1.1.3 3 Types
1.1.1.3.1 UP
1.1.1.3.1.1 C +2/3
1.1.1.3.1.2 BN +1/3
1.1.1.3.2 DOWN
1.1.1.3.2.1 C -1/3
1.1.1.3.2.2 B +1/3
1.1.1.3.3 STRANGE
1.1.1.3.3.1 C -1/3
1.1.1.3.3.2 BN +1/3
1.1.1.3.3.3 Strangeness -1
1.2 Feel the strong nuclear force
2 Leptons
2.1 Fundamental particles
2.2 Lepton number 1
2.2.1 1 number for each type
2.3 Six Types + associated antiparticles
2.3.1 Muon
2.3.2 Muon neutrino
2.3.3 Electron neutrino
2.3.4 Electron
2.3.5 Tau neutrino
2.3.6 Tau
2.4 Don't feel SN force
3 Bosons
3.1 exchange particles
3.1.1 carry forces between particles
4 Atomic structure
4.1 Atomic number
4.1.1 Total no. of protons in the nucleus
4.2 Nucleon (mass) number
4.2.1 Total no. of protons and neutrons
4.3 Isotopes
4.3.1 Same no. protons
4.3.2 Different no. of neutrons
4.3.2.1 Greater no. neutrons = less stable nucleus
5 Stability of nuclei
5.1 electrostattic forces
5.1.1 Replusion of protons
5.1.2 Range indefinite
5.2 Gravitational forces
5.2.1 weak
5.3 Strong nuclear (attractive) force
5.3.1 v.short range: few femtometers
5.3.2 Works equally on all nucleons
5.3.3 At v.small separation SN force is replusive
5.4 Decays
5.4.1 Alpha
5.4.1.1 v. big nuclei
5.4.1.1.1 nuclei to big for SN force to keep stable
5.4.1.2 When alpha particle emmitted
5.4.1.2.1 PN decreases by 2
5.4.1.2.2 Mass no. decreases by 4
5.4.2 Beta minus
5.4.2.1 Neutron rich nuclei
5.4.2.2 Electron + antineutrino emitted from nucleus
5.4.2.2.1 PN increases by 1
5.4.2.2.2 Mass no. stays the same
5.4.2.2.3 Antineutrino carries away
5.4.2.2.3.1 energy
5.4.2.2.3.2 momentum
6 Particles + antiparticles
6.1 Antiparticles have
6.1.1 Same mass
6.1.2 Opposite charge
6.2 Pair production
6.2.1 2 protons collide at high speed
6.2.2 High energy
6.2.2.1 Converted into more particles
6.2.3 antiparticles + particles formed
6.2.3.1 produced from single photon
6.2.3.2 usually electron positron pairs produced
6.2.3.2.1 low mass
6.2.3.2.2 curve due to magnetic field
6.2.3.2.2.1 opposite directions : opposite charges
6.3 Annihilation
6.3.1 Particle meets antiparticle
6.3.2 Total mass converted into enegy