The earth in the universe

zakbarwell
Mind Map by zakbarwell, updated more than 1 year ago
zakbarwell
Created by zakbarwell about 6 years ago
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GCSE Physics (P1) Mind Map on The earth in the universe, created by zakbarwell on 03/17/2014.
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The earth in the universe
1 The Solar System
1.1 Formed around 5000 million years ago
1.2 Started off as clouds of dust and gas
1.2.1 Pulled together by forces of gravity
1.2.1.1 Nuclear fusion created the sun
1.3 Smaller masses of the solar system:
1.3.1 Planets - 8 large masses that orbit the sun
1.3.2 Moons - small masses orbit planets
1.3.3 Asteroids - rocky masses orbit the sun
2 The Sun
2.1 Suns energy comes from nuclear fusion
2.2 Hydrogen nuclei fuse together to produce nucleus with larger mass
3 Speed of Light
3.1 Speed of light: 300,000km/s
3.2 Vast distance measured in Light Years
3.2.1 We see things as it was in the past
3.3 Nearest galaxy 2.2 million light years away
4 Measuring Distances in Space
4.1 Relative Brightness
4.1.1 Dimmer the star is further away it is
4.1.2 But stars vary in brightness so can never be 100%
4.2 Parallax
4.2.1 Stars measured at 6 month intervals
4.2.1.1 Measurements then used to calculate distance from earth
4.2.2 The closer a star the more it will move
5 Distant Stars
5.1 Everything we know about stars are from; Radiation (Ultraviolet and infrared), Visible Light.
5.2 Light pollution from all our electric lights make it hard to see stars
6 Redshift
6.1 If a wave is moving away/towards a observer, there will be a change in frequenxy and wavelength
6.2 If a source of light moves away from an observer, the wavelengths of light in its spectrum are longer than if it wasn't moving
6.2.1 This is known as REDSHIFT, because the wave lengths 'shift' towards the red end of the spectrum.
7 Continental Drift
7.1 Alfred Wegener came up with the theory
7.2 he saw that all continents fitted together like a jigsaw
7.3 he found that the rock types and fossils were the same as if they did all fit together
8 Waves
8.1 Longitudinal
8.1.1 The motion of the wave is backwards and forwards
8.1.2 Sound travels in longitudinal waves
8.2 Transverse
8.2.1 The motion of the wave, angles of the particles are 90 degrees
8.2.2 Light and water travel in transverse waves
8.3 Features
8.3.1 Amplitude - From the undisturbed position line to the crest.
8.3.2 Wavelength - Distance between corresponding points on 2 adjacent disturbances
8.3.3 Frequency - Number of waves passing through a point in one second
9 Tectonic Plates
9.1 Conservative Plate boundaries - When plates slide past each other and huge stress and strain builds up and is eventually released
9.2 Constructive Plate Boundaries - when the plates move away from each other leaving the magma to rise the solidifying creating more land
9.3 Destructive Plate Boundaries - As plater move towards eachother one is forced under and the other one is pushed up creating volcanoes
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