Atrial Fibrillation

Affy MD
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Pham1008 Mind Map on Atrial Fibrillation, created by Affy MD on 05/02/2013.

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Affy MD
Created by Affy MD over 6 years ago
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Atrial Fibrillation
1 Risk Factors

Annotations:

  • NOT FROM LECTURE NOTES
1.1 Post-Operative (Open Heart Surgeries)
1.2 Pericarditis
1.3 "Lone" AF

Annotations:

  • NO RISK FACTORS at all and still has AF...
1.4 Cardiac Causes
1.4.1 Hypertension
1.4.2 Heart Failure
1.4.3 Ischaemic Heart Disease
1.4.4 Rheumatic Heart Disease
1.4.5 Sinus-sinus syndrome

Annotations:

  • Tachy-Brady syndrome
1.4.6 Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome
1.4.7 Cardiomyopathy
1.5 Non Cardiac Causes
1.5.1 Acute Infections
1.5.2 Electrolyte depletion
1.5.3 Lung Carcinoma
1.5.4 Pleural Effusion
1.5.5 Pulmonary Embolism
2 What happens in AF
2.1 It is a type of Arrhythmia
2.1.1 Atria are fibrillating, not a normal contraction ---> STAGNANT Blood Flow
2.1.1.1 Leading to a rapid, irregular Ventricular Rate
2.1.1.1.1 Decreased Ventricular filling and output
2.1.1.1.1.1 This leads to these SYMPTOMS
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Fatigue
2.1.1.1.1.1.2 Shortness of Breath
2.1.1.1.1.1.3 Chest discomfort
2.1.1.1.1.1.4 Palpitations
2.1.1.1.1.1.5 Feeling faint
2.1.1.2 Blood Clot
2.1.1.2.1 Stroke
2.1.1.2.2 Heart Attack
2.1.1.2.3 Pulmonary Embolism

Annotations:

  • Blood Clot in the Lung
3 Rate Control
3.1 Medicines
3.1.1 Beta-Blockers & Non-dihydropyridine CCB are first line

Annotations:

  • Metoprolol, Atenolol, Propranolol, Carvedilol Diltiazem, Verapamil. All DECREASE BP. Slow the HR 
3.1.2 Digoxin - Second line

Annotations:

  • HR often increase with exercise
3.2 Procedures
3.2.1 Pacemakers

Annotations:

  • Prevents Heart from going too slow but can do nothing with heart going too fast. That is why antiarrhymic drugs are given.
3.2.2 AV node ablation

Annotations:

  • A type of surgery that involves burning.
4 Rhythm Control
4.1 Medicines

Annotations:

  • Most likely prescribed these medications for sinus rhythm maintenance or preventing AF occuring
4.1.1 Amiodarone

Annotations:

  • Best Efficacy/Effectiveness. Problems: Toxicity in brain, liver, kidney, thyroid, skin.
4.1.2 Flecainide
4.1.3 Pill In Pocket
4.2 Cardioversion

Annotations:

  • Restarting the heart.  Very successful - AF to normal sinus rhythm 
5 Diagnosis of AF
5.1 Paroxysmal AF (Self-Terminating)

Annotations:

  • <7 days (Most resolve within 24 hours)
5.1.1 Rhythm Control FIRST
5.1.1.1 Rate Control if rhythm fails
5.2 Persistent AF (Not Self-Terminating)

Annotations:

  • > 7 days - sustained AF that terminates with cardioversion
5.2.1 Rate OR Rhythm Control depending on conditions

Annotations:

  • Rhythm first in patients who are: Symptomatic Younger (<65) Presenting for first time with Lone AF Secondary to precipitant Congestive Heart Failure 
  • Rate first in patients who are: Over 65 With Coronary Heart Disease Contraindications to anti-arrythmic drugs Unsuitable for cardioversion 
5.2.1.1 Try other if previous fails
5.3 Permanent AF (Cannot go back to Normal)

Annotations:

  • Persists for more than a year, cardioversion has failed or not even attempted
5.3.1 Rate Control FIRST
5.3.1.1 Rhythm Control (if rate fails)

Annotations:

  • Opposite of Paroxysmal  methods Karo :)
5.4 New Onset of AF
5.4.1 Patient is Hemodynamically Stable
5.4.1.1 Anticoagulated INR 2-3 for >3 weeks
5.4.1.1.1 Cardioversion
5.4.1.1.2 Rate Control
5.4.1.2 Not anticoagulated INR <2 for 3 weeks
5.4.1.2.1 Warfarin and Rate Control
5.4.1.2.2 Cardioversion
5.5 Recurrent AF

Annotations:

  • I don't know if we've learnt it this way...
5.5.1 Minimal Symptoms
5.5.1.1 Warfarin and Rate Control
5.5.1.1.1 No prevention. No Anti-arrythmic drugs
5.5.2 Disabling Symptoms
5.5.2.1 Warfarin and Rate Control
5.5.2.1.1 Anti-arrythmic drugs for prevention
6 Warfarin INR 2-3

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