Indicators of Development

james_hobson
Mind Map by james_hobson, updated more than 1 year ago
james_hobson
Created by james_hobson about 6 years ago
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Using Population as Indicators of Development | AQA AS Geography A Population
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Indicators of Development
1 Why do we need indicators of development?
1.1 Allow us to compare countries
1.2 Countries can be ranked fairly to allocate aid
1.3 They give us an idea of what a country is like economically, socially and even environmentally
1.3.1 Healthcare
1.3.2 Sanitation
1.3.3 Education
2 The Big Mac Indicator
2.1 Countries are ranked on how long it would take an averagely paid worker to be able to afford a Big Mac
3 Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
3.1 The value of all goods and services in a country (US$ per capita)
3.2 Gross National Product (GNP) is similar, but takes into account the value of goods and services produced by that country overseas
3.3 Advantages
3.3.1 Good for comparing countries
3.3.2 Easy to calculate from government figures
3.4 Disadvantages
3.4.1 Does not show the distribution of wealth
3.4.2 Can be manipulated by governments that want to appear poor to get more aid
3.5 e.g. Ethiopia (LEDC) has a GDP of US$1000 per capita, whereas the UK (MEDC) has a GDP of US$31400 per capita
4 Infant Mortality
4.1 Shows the state of a countries health service, food provision and water quality
4.2 Advantages
4.2.1 Easy to understand
4.2.2 Focuses on a significant aspect of development
4.3 Disadvantages
4.3.1 Hard to get an accurate figure in LEDCs due to unregistered births
4.3.2 High IM could be due to social or political factors
4.3.2.1 e.g. the One Child Policy in China would cause IM to be higher
4.4 In Japan, IMR is 3/1000/year, whereas in Chad it is 91/1000/year
5 Birth Rate
5.1 High BR = LEDCs
5.1.1 More children to ensure survival of at least one child (as the IMR is high)
5.2 Low BR = MEDCs
5.2.1 More contraception, women working, cost of children etc.
5.3 Advantages
5.3.1 Clear indicator
5.3.2 Can be used to predict the future and plan accordingly (DTM)
5.4 Disadvantages
5.4.1 Affected by population policies (One Child Policy - China)
5.4.2 Figures in LEDCs may not be accurate
5.5 Ethiopia (LEDC) has a BR of 38/1000/year, whereas the UK (MEDC) has a BR of 11/1000/year
6 Death Rate
6.1 Clear indicator of the level of healthcare, sanitation, accommodation and food supply
6.2 High DR = LEDCs
6.3 Low DR = MEDCs
6.4 Advantages
6.4.1 Easy to use
6.4.2 Indicates level of healthcare
6.5 Disadvantages
6.5.1 Doesn't say what the cause of death was (The high DR could be due to a natural disaster not poor healthcare)
6.5.2 Difficult to get an accurate figure from LEDCs
6.6 Japan (MEDC) has a DR of 9 per 1000 per year, whereas Chad (LEDC) has a DR of 16 per 1000 per year
7 Key Terms
7.1 Infant Mortality Rate
7.1.1 Number of deaths of children under the age of 1 year expressed per 1000 live births per year
7.2 Birth Rate
7.2.1 Number of live births per 1000 per year
7.3 Death Rate
7.3.1 Number of deaths per 1000 per year
7.4 Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
7.4.1 The total value of goods produced and services provided in a country per person during one year
8 Other Indicators
8.1 Literacy Rates
8.2 Life Expectancy
8.3 % of young/elderly people
8.4 Vehicles per km of road
8.5 View full list at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/all
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