A2 Geography- Water Conflicts

Mind Map by sophielee0909, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by sophielee0909 almost 6 years ago


Mind Map on A2 Geography- Water Conflicts, created by sophielee0909 on 04/01/2014.

Resource summary

A2 Geography- Water Conflicts
1 geography of water supply
1.1 physical factors
1.1.1 climate- distribution- annual & seasonal rainfall
1.1.2 Bluewater flow- visible part of hydrological cycle rivers- transfer of surface water geology- distribution of aquifers, supply underground water
1.2 water stress, scarcity and vulnerability
1.2.1 2025- 1/2 worlds population water vulnerable.- many under water stress
1.2.2 Scarcity- annual supply drops below 1000m^3 per person. physical- more than 75% of countries river flows being used economic- development of blue water sources limited by lack of capital/technology- Africa-only have access to 25% of supplies
1.2.3 climate change & deterioration of ecosystems, rapid economic development(superpowers), water stress rising- 2050-4 billion-middle east & africa and asia.
1.2.4 MEDC- US USA & Spain- require water transfers and widespread desalination.
1.3 human impacts
1.3.1 quantity remove water from groundwater sources & rivers, drinking, irrigation & industry. overabstraction-supplies not replenished-reserves lost-rainfall can't recharge underground stores
1.3.2 quality pollute surface and groundwater supplies sewage disposal-forced to use unsafe water- water bourne diseases-typhoid, cholera & hepatitis. -135m deaths 2020. farmers-chemical fertilisers- contaminate groundwater & rivers- hypoxia & dead zones in seas industrial waste dumped- heavy metals & chemical waste toxic
1.3.3 water insecurity not having access to sufficient, safe water WPI(water Poverty Index)- how general poverty is linked to water poverty.- assesses aspects of water management- resources(quantity-renewable supply), access(improved water supply & sanitation), capacity (GDP per capita, mortality rate, education), use ( amount used per person/sector in proportion to GDP generated), environmental impact (water quality & stress)
2 risks of water insecurity
2.1 water supply problems
2.1.1 essential to support irrigation- food production- high tech cash crop farming-green revolution-high demands on water
2.1.2 support industry- coca-cola bottling plant- Kerala- 4.5m L local water a day
2.1.3 Hydroelectric power production & cooling in thermal power processing.
2.1.4 safe,secure water supplies- better health & higher standards of human wellbeing, MDG's
2.1.5 extraction & use of water resources- environmental damage & supply problems. e.g Soviet union- 75% surface water polluted. Aral sea declined to 10% of original size- river diversions for cotton crop irrigation. Salination ecological and environmental impacts. - World bank restoring.
2.2 water conflicts
2.2.1 demands for irrigation, energy, industry, domestic use, recreation, conservation.- tension
2.2.2 water hotspots/pressure points- need for management diminishing supply- impact of climate change, deterioration quality, impact of competing users e.g upstream v downstream rising demands- population growth, economic development competing demands- internal conflicts in a basin, international issues- upstream v downstream, irrigation
2.2.3 mainly upstream users diverting water/ impact of dams. - committees established.- flood control, infrastructure, technical cooperation e.g Mekong river committee
2.2.4 Current examples of surface water conflict Jordan river- Use of river by Israel, Jordan, Lebanon & Syria- reduced river flow. effects supplies to Palestine. Ganges- India built dams (Faraka)- reduced flow of river into Bangleadesh Colorado basin- Disputes over state allocation- quality & quantity to Mexico does not reach agreed standard Nile basin- schemes in Ethiopia and Sudan threaten supplies to Egypt.- management agreements in place
2.2.5 Groundwater conflicts- Aquifer usage pressure points- middle east, Arabia & N Africa- water so over abstracted it cannot be replenished. Subterranean aquifers- straddle international boundaries- Shared groundwater usage supplies underground- takes long time for effects to be visible, hard to negotiate share for each nation- not owned, developed nations mine water more efficiently-deeper wells & more efficient pumps, lack of official legislation.
2.3 water geopolitics
2.3.1 Helsinki rules- general agreement that international treaties must include 'equitable use' within drainage basins when dividing criterial for water sharing Criteria- natural factors, downstream impacts, social and economic needs, prior use
2.3.2 player with greatest military, economic & political power is the winner.
2.3.3 Multilateral aid scheme from world bank- water sharing agreements built in if it involves a transnational river
2.3.4 laws passed- 'law of the river'-share out water of Colorado between US states & Mexico.- Still disagreements, especially during drought.
2.4 water transfers
2.4.1 diversion of water from one drainage basin to another- diversions/canal construction. from surplus to defecit
2.4.2 Techno-fixes for water redistribution-huge environmental & economic costs- desalination more viable Snowy mountains scheme- SE Australia- Water transferred form storage lake-Eucumbene- via tunnel to Murray river to irrigate farms in drought area S to N China transfer project- began 2003- 50 yrs to complete- $100B. Transfer from water secure South to drought stricken North via 1300km canals- Yangtze to Yellow Huai & Hai rivers India- planning national water network- better distribution of supplies to water defect areas. More even spread. Canada- surplus- NAWAPA scheme- transfer water form Alaska & NW Canada to S California & Mexico.
2.4.3 Issues Source area- drop in flow of unto 60%- diversions, low river flow & pollution- impact on ecosystems, combine with climate change to create water scarcity Receiving area- Availability of water leads to greater use- development etc, unsustainable irrigated farming- agribusiness, Nitrate eutrophication, salivation, ecosystem destruction, pollution transfer
3 water conflicts and the future
3.1 will effect environment, health & wellbeing, food security
3.2 Business as Usual-unsustainable
3.2.1 water scarcity-reduce food production, consumption of water rise by 50%, household water use increase by 70%(developed), industrial water demand increase(developing) developing countries become reliant upon food imports & experience hunger & malnutrition. Water pumped faster than aquifers can recharge- W USA, Africa, China, India
3.3 Water Crisis- mismanagement of water resources/ climate change
3.3.1 global water consumption further increase-irrigation, worldwide demand for domestic water fall, demand for industrial water increase by 33% but output remain the same food production decline & food prices(cereals) increase rapidly. developing- Malnutrition & food insecurity increase. dam building decline-fewer potential sites, key aquifers(China,India,N Africa) fail. conflict increase
3.4 Sustainable water
3.4.1 global water consumption & industrial water use fall, environmental flows increased, global rain-fed crop yields increase- improvements in water harvesting & sustainable farming, Agricultural & Household water prices x2(developed) & x3(developing) Food production increase slightly & shifts in where it is grown. Prices fall slowly. Governments, international donors, farmers increase investment in crop research, technology & reforms in water management. Governments delegate farm management to community groups
3.5 Water players & decision makers
3.5.1 Political-International organisations (UN) responsible for MDGs, gov't depts, councils, pressure groups to fight issues-mega dams
3.5.2 Economic(Business)- World bank & IMF fund mega projects & legislation for trans-boundary schemes, TNC water companies-run supply business. TNCs & Businesses that are large users ( agriculture, industry, energy, recreation)
3.5.3 Social(human welfare)- Individuals, residents, consumers, land owners, farmers, access to water is human right. Health officials- try to ensure safe water, NGOs-water aid-develop sustainable schemes for LDCs
3.5.4 Environmental(sustainable development)- Conservationists- fight hard engineering schemes/save wetlands. Scientists & planners- develop new schemes. WWF/UNESCO.
3.6 Controversy
3.6.1 Social-access is human right, Political- human need- best provided through market mechanisms. To meet MDG- half proportion of people without access to improved water supply-$200B.- LDC governments rely on private organisations to develop water supply infrastructure.- can lead to rising prices for consumers & lack of environmental improvement.
3.6.2 to keep up with demand, political & businesses prefer hard engineering- mega dams, water transfer projects & desalination plant clusters.- high social, economic & environmental costs - unsustainable
3.7 responses to rising demands
3.7.1 hard engineering projects dams-845,000, 5000 mega dams. 2/3 fresh surface water obstructed. Unsustainable. 1/2 used for irrigated agriculture. large scale water transfers- schemes have huge environmental consequences for source & receiving areas. Desalination- in water stressed technologically advanced countries- UAE, USA, Spain. Costs lowering- improved technology
3.7.2 Water Conservation agriculture- spray technology & drip irrigation- uses less water. grey water use- recycled industrial water domestic users- water meters- eco-kettles, water harvesting, water companies fixing broken pipes restoring damaged wetlands to natural state- renew water stores- Aral Sea.
3.7.3 Integrated water management Groundwater management- Aquifer storage & reuse, quality & quantity modelling waterway management- river rehabilitation,sustainable water allocation, waterway health, environmental flows, waterway structures. Monitoring technology- Sensor technology, real-time wireless monitoring & control systems Integrated urban water management- Water treatment technology, water sensitive urban design, water harvesting & reuse
4 synoptic links
4.1 Players- public/private issues, exploitation/conservation issues, supplier/user issues.
4.2 Actions- resources usually government managed, but supply controlled by private companies
4.3 Futures- Sustainability- conservation of existing supplies.
4.4 Links to other units- Unit 1-world at risk( impact of short term climate change). Unit 2- technological fix( major engineering projects and appropriate technology), bridging the development gap(role of water as lifeblood of development), Superpower geographies(role of mega engineering projects in raising the profile of China and India). Wider global issues- climate change and global warming responsible fro increasing water crisis. development gap-access to clean water in LDCs more difficult & cost is higher. sustainability of water as a resource.
5 world water gap between growing demand and diminishing supplies
5.1 population growth, economic development, rising SoL. -lead to conflict
5.2 water supplies unevenly spread, surpluses and deficits
5.3 water availability gap- LEDC & MEDC.-reflection of development gap.- imbalance in usage
5.4 climate change- developing nations lack of resilience & technology to adapt
5.5 over abstraction of costal areas & rising sea levels- saltwater contamination
5.6 cost of safe water supply in megacities rising- slum users 6x more costly
5.7 pollution of supplies in developing countries & rapid urban growth- rising demand
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