Socialism- Core themes-No man is an Island

Elleonwocheigarcia
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Mind Map on Socialism- Core themes-No man is an Island, created by Elleonwocheigarcia on 04/01/2014.

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Elleonwocheigarcia
Created by Elleonwocheigarcia over 5 years ago
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Socialism- Core themes-No man is an Island
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2 Humanity
2.1 Social Egalitarianism ( a theory or practice based on the desire to promote equality;egalitarianism is sometimes seen as the belief that equality is the primary political value) characterised by a belief in social equality / equality of outcome

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  • Social equality upholds justice/fairness. Capitalism has fostered competitive social behavior, human inequality largely reflects the unequal structure of society-not all people are identical. The most significant forms of human inequality are a result of unequal treatment by society, rather than unequal endowment by nature Justice demands that people are treated equally by society in terms of rewards/ material circumstance. Formal equality in a legal and political sense, is clearly inadequate in itself becuase it disregards the structured inequalities by perpetuating the myth of innate inequality
2.1.1 Social equality upholds justice/fairness. Capitalism has fostered competitive social behavior, human inequality largely reflects the unequal structure of society-not all people are identical. The most significant forms of human inequality are a result of unequal treatment by society, rather than unequal endowment by nature.
2.1.1.1 Justice demands that people are treated equally by society in terms of rewards/ material circumstance. Formal equality in a legal and political sense, is clearly inadequate in itself becuase it disregards the structured inequalities by perpetuating the myth of innate inequality
2.1.1.1.1 Social equality underpins community and co-operation- equal social circumstances-more likely to identify with one another and work together for common benefit-equal outcomes strengthen circumstances- a criticism of 'survival of the fittest'
2.1.1.1.1.1 Need for satisfaction is the basis for human fulfillment and self-realization. A need is a necessity-demand satisfaction is the stuff of freedom. Marx communist theory of distribution- 'from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs'. All people have broadly simlar needs, distributing wealth on the basis of need-satisfaction has clearly egalitarian implications. Some things are needed by humans so they are able to relise their potential-food sheter work , education
2.2 More important than individual freedom. All freedom comes from equality. Eqalitarianism is the desire to promote equality
2.2.1 Pomotes community and social cohesion. Reduces greed competition ad envy. People able to identify with each other-more likely to work together
2.3 Different socialist would go to different lengths to ensure equality
2.3.1 Absolute equality-Marxism
2.3.1.1 Individuals recieve some rewards as long as they work to the best of their ability. Marx- 'from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs'. The ultimate goal for marxist/ communists- Utopain
2.3.1.1.1 Equality of Outcome-Democratic Socialist
2.3.1.1.1.1 Rewards based on contribution but significant narrowing of gap between highly pain and poorly paid. Major redistribution of wealth-'Robin Hood taxes'
2.3.1.1.1.1.1 Equality of Opportunity-Social Democrats
2.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 All entitle to aspire and achieve our potential, Positive steps should be taken to ensure there are no barrier to people making best of their ability.-gender, sexuality, Race, Poverty-equality of welfare. Rawls. Inequality between humans is no 'natural'.
3 Community
3.1 Unifying vision of human beings as social creation, capable of ovecoming social and economic problems by drawing on the powers of the community rather than simply individual effort .Collectivist stresses the capacity of humans beings for collective action , willingness and ability to pursue goals by working together , as opposed to striving for self-interest. John Donne 'No man is an Island entrie of itself. Human beins are therefore 'comrades' brothers or sisters tied to one another by the bonds of a common humanity,
4 Fraternity
4.1 Literally brotherhood; bonds of sympathy and comradeship between and amongst human beings. Humans are not unchanging ad fixed at birth, human nature is malleable or plastic shaped by the experiences and circumstances of social life. Nurture rather than nature
5 Co-operation
5.1 Working together-collective effort intended to acheive mutual benefit. Human beings are social animals, natural relationships amongst them is one of co-operation not competition. Competitions pits one individuals against the other , encouraging them to deny or ignore their social nature rather than embrace it, Co-operation makes moral and economic sense. Individuals who works together rather than against each other develop bonds of sympathy caring and affection . Energies of the community rather than those of the single individual can be harnessed-Peter Kropotkin-principle reason for which humans have survived and prospered wwas because of its capacity for mutual aid'. Humans can be motivated by moral incentives and not merely my material incentives.
5.1.1 In theory, capitalism rewards individuals for the work they do: the harder they work, or more abundant their skills, the greater their rewards will be. The moral incentive to work hard , however is the desire to contribute to the common good, develops out of sympathy or sense of responsibility for fellow human beings, especially those in need.
5.1.2 Modern Social Democrats could contemplate the outright abolition of material incentives , they nevertheless insist on the need for the balance of some kind between material and moral incentives. E.G Socialists would argue that an important incentive for achieving economic growth is that it helps finance the provision of welfare support for the poorest and most vulnerable elements of society
5.1.3 IN PRACTICE-the socialist commitment to co-operation has stimulated the growth od co-operative enterprises , designed to replace the competitive and hierarchic business that have proliferated under capitalism. In the UK co-operative societies sprang up in the early nineteenth century-the Rochdale pioneers
6 Collectivism
6.1 Individuals-inferior to the group or community. Problems of society/ economy are best solved collectivley. Competition is wasteful. Collective co-opertion is a more meaningful possibility. It is based on the belief that humans are social beings and are therefor more willing to be co-operative than selfishly selfinterested
7 Common Ownership
7.1 Rousseau. Private property is unjust. The private ownership of land results in inequality. Key thinker Proudhon (1806-65) 'all property is theft' as people own the industries. Justification-Religious-God gave the earh to everyone. By having property you are depriving some oneelse of it = Gives rise to inequality and the have and the have not's.
8 Equality
8.1 Defining feature of socialist ideology, equality is the defining feature of socialist ideology, that political value that most clearly distinguishes socialism, Socialist egalitarianism is characterized by a belief in social equality or equality of outcome. Socialists have advance three arguments in favour of this form of equality
8.1.1 Social Equality upholds justice or fairness. The inequality of wealth is not explained by the differences of ability among individuals. Just as capitalism has fostered competitive and selfish behaviour , human inequality reflects the unequal structure of society. Don't believe that all are born identical. An egalitarian society would not be one in which all are rewarded equally regardless of ability or effort. Socialists believe that the most significant forms of human inequality are the result of unequal treatment by society rather than unequal endowment by nature
8.1.1.1 Justice from a socialist perspective , therefore demands that people are treated equally or more equally by society in terms of their rewards and material circumstances. Formal equality in its legal and political senses is clearly inadequate in itself because it disregards the structural inequalities of the capitalist system. Equality of opportunity legitimizes inequality by perpetuating the myth of innate inequality
8.1.2 SOCIAL EQUALITY UNDERPINS COMMUNITY AND COOPERATION. If people live in equal social circumstance=more likely to identify with one another and work together for common benefit. Equal outcomes threaten social solidarity. Social inequality lead to conflict an instability, therefore socialists have criticized equality of opportunity for breeding a 'survival of the fittest' mentality. R. H Tawney dismissed it as 'tadpole philosophy', highlighting the struggle for survival amongst tadpoles as they develop into frogs.
8.1.3 Socialists support social equality because they hold that need -satisfaction is the basis of human fulfilment and self realization. A 'need' demands 'satisfaction', . Basic needs e.g water, food, shelter , companionship... are fundamental to the human condition, which means for socialists their satisfaction is the very stuff of freedom. Marx: 'From each to his ability, to each according to his needs'. Since all people have broadly similar needs , distrinbutin wealth on the basis of need-satisfaction has clearly eqalitarian implication
8.2 EGALITARIANISM; A theory or practice based on the desire to promote equality , egalitarianism is sometimes seen as the beleif that equality is the primaty political value
8.3 Although socialist agree about the virtue of social and economic equality, they disagree about the extent to which this can and should be brought
8.3.1 MARXIST AND COMMUNISTD believe that absolute social equality , brought about by the abolition of private property and COLLECTIVIZATION of productive wealth
8.3.2 SOCIAL DEMOCRATS-relative social equality , achived through the redistribution of wealth throughout the welfare state and a system of progressive taxation. The social democrat desire to tame capitalism rather than abolish it , reflects an acceptance of a continuingrole for material incentives, and the fact that the significance of need-satisfaction is largely confined to the eradication of poverty. This blurs the distinction between social equality and equality of opportunity
9 Common Ownership
10 Class Politics
10.1 SOCIAL CLASS-A social diviision based on economic or social factors; a social class is a group of people who share a similar socio-economic position
10.2 Enter text here

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