IT revision

Josh Jones
Mind Map by , created almost 3 years ago

GCSE IT Mind Map on IT revision, created by Josh Jones on 11/23/2016.

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Josh Jones
Created by Josh Jones almost 3 years ago
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1 languages
1.1 awareness that many people using english discussion groups may not be native to england
2 disability
2.1 blind
2.1.1 text alternatives for graphics
2.2 deaf
2.2.1 subtitles for videos
2.3 colour blind
2.3.1 choosing suitable colours that don't contrast
3 security and privacy
3.1 spam
3.1.1 knowing not to contribute to it
3.2 checking email headers
3.2.1 replies are only sent to people that need them
4 formal and informal writing
4.1 informal
4.1.1 messaging friends slang
4.1.2 social media
4.2 formal
4.2.1 letter
4.2.2 applying for a job
5 collaborating with friends
5.1 make it easier
5.2 gets it done quicker
6 purpose of key IT applications
6.1 productivity - improving the output e.g. using IT to help people work more efficiently
6.2 word processing makes redrafting more effecient
6.3 vector design programs
6.3.1 produce drawings that can be scaled almost infinitely without loss of quality or increasing the size of the files.
6.4 Web browsers should all display information provided on the internet consistently irrespective of the device.
6.5 A spreadsheet helps us to apply mathematical calculations to data
6.6 The internet is increasingly the computer platform, its purpose is to store and provide and enable creation of information all over the world.
6.7 Text messages enable low cost, instant communication. Basic principles of files names and structures associated with different applications.
6.8 Issues related to interoperability (connecting to each other) of applications from different providers.
6.9 File sizes, file types and conversion between files
6.10 Save as, import and export to and from applications
6.11 Passwords enable security but quality of passwords matters
6.12 Identifying unsafe practice
6.13 Knowing that people on the internet should not be trusted without good and independent verification of their identity
6.14 Knowing that simple internet searches can reveal a lot about you and other people.
6.15 Knowing that leaving your computer without logging out is a very significant security breach.
6.16 Knowing about common internet scams
7 file types
7.1 .DOC - document
7.1.1 Word processing document.
7.2 .PDF - document file
7.2.1 Portable Document Format (PDF) is now an open standard for electronic document exchange , PDF files can contain clickable links and buttons, form fields, video, and audio — as well as logic to help automate routine business processes. When you share a PDF file, virtually anyone can read it using free Adobe Reader® software or the Adobe Reader mobile app.
7.3 .PPT - powerpoint
7.3.1 PowerPoint is a slide show presentation program developed by Microsoft.
7.4 .MOV - movie
7.4.1 Common multimedia container file format developed by Apple and compatible with both Macintosh and Windows platforms; may contain multiple tracks that store different types of media data; often used for saving movies and other video files.
7.5 .JPG - graphics file
7.5.1 JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group. (.JPG file extension, pronounced Jay Peg). This is the right format for those photo images which must be very small files, for example, for web sites or for email. JPG is often used on digital camera memory cards.
7.6 .PNG - graphics file
7.6.1 Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is a graphics file format that supports lossless data compression. PNG was created as an improved, non-patented replacement for Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), and is the most used lossless image compression format on the Internet.
7.7 .ZIP - compressed file
7.7.1 ZIP is an archive file format that supports lossless data compression. A .ZIP file may contain one or more files or folders that may have been compressed.
7.8 .SVG - graphics file
7.8.1 Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an image format for two-dimensional graphics with support for interactivity and animation. The SVG specification is an open standard.
7.9 .XLS - spreadsheet
7.9.1 Microsoft Excel file format, a spreadsheet file format.
7.10 .MD4 - video file
7.10.1 MP4 is a digital multimedia format most commonly used to store video and audio.
7.11 .MP3 - music file
7.11.1 MP3 is a standard technology and format for compressing a sound sequence into a very small file (about one-twelfth the size of the original file) while preserving the original level of sound quality when it is played.
7.12 .TXT - text file
7.12.1 "Text file" refers to a type of container, while plain text refers to a type of content. Text files can contain plain text, but they are not limited to such.
7.13 A file type or file format describes the way in which data is encoded for storage in a computer file. File format may be either proprietary or open
8 more file types
8.1 .OGG - multimedia file
8.1.1 Ogg is a free, open container format. The creators of the Ogg format state that it is unrestricted by software patents and is designed to provide for efficient streaming and manipulation of high quality digital multimedia.
8.2 OGG vorbis. - audio compressed file
8.2.1 Vorbis is a free and open-source software It is an audio coding format for lossy audio compression.
8.3 .HTML - web pages
8.3.1 HyperText Markup Language, commonly referred to as HTML, is the standard markup language used to create web pages. It is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like <html> ).
8.4 .EPS - graphics file
8.4.1 an EPS file is a PostScript program, saved as a single file that includes a low-resolution preview "encapsulated" inside of it, allowing some programs to display a preview on the screen.
8.5 .odt - xml based file for office.
8.5.1 Open Document Format for Office Applications (ODF), also known as OpenDocument, is an XML-based file format for spreadsheets charts presentations and word processing documents.
8.6 .WAV - audio file
8.6.1 Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE, or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension).
8.7 .WMF - image file
8.7.1 Windows Metafile (WMF) is an image file format originally designed for Microsoft Windows in the 1990s. Windows Metafiles are intended to be portable between applications and may contain both vector graphics and bit map components. It acts in a similar manner to SVG files.
8.8 .MPG - audio and video file
8.8.1 one of a number of file extensions for MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 audio and video compression.
8.9 .FLV - video file
8.9.1 Flash Video FLV file.
8.10 .EXE - file extenion
8.10.1 a file extension for an executable file format. An executable is a file that contains a program - that is, a particular kind of file that is capable of being executed or run as a program in the computer. An executable file can be run by a program in Microsoft DOS or Windows through a command or a double click.
8.11 .RTF - text file
8.11.1 RTF is a text file format used by Microsoft products, such as Word and Office. RTF, or Rich Text Format, files were developed by Microsoft in 1987. RTF files support text style formatting, as well as images within the text.
8.12 .GIF - image file
8.12.1 The Graphics Interchange Format (better known by its acronym GIF) is a bitmap image format.
8.13 .AVI - video file
8.13.1 The AVI format is popular for watching standard definition video. AVI player is compatible with tablets, TVs and PCs.
8.14 proprietary
8.14.1 created by commercial companies to support their own applications. For example Microsoft use a .docx file format for Word.
8.15 open-file
8.15.1 do not belong to anyone in particular. For example a .txt file can be read by any text processing application
10 SMART targets
10.1 Specific goals Measurable goals Attainable goals Realistic and relevant goals Time bound goals
11 target audience
11.1 age
11.2 gender
11.3 background
11.4 nationality
11.5 disability
12 aspects that are suitable for the audience
12.1 style of writing
12.2 language
12.3 images
12.4 fonts
12.5 colours
12.6 multimedia content
13 ICT can reach a global audience
13.1 Translation software, VoIP (Video conferencing, Skype, etc), websites, public web pages (wiki), online messaging, forums
14 shortcuts: Copy a selected item: Ctrl+C  Cut a selected item: Ctrl+X  Paste a selected item: Ctrl+V  Undo an action: Ctrl+Z  Redo that thing I just undid: Ctrl+Y  Select everything: Ctrl+A  Print: Ctrl+P
15 internet scams
15.1 phishing
15.1.1 The most common types of phishing scams are fake emails, social posts and texts.
15.2 hacking
15.2.1 If someone tries to access your computer, tablet or smartphone without permission,
15.3 malware
15.3.1 - Malware is a computer program that’s designed to damage a computer without the owner knowing anything about it
16 why are file types used?
16.1 so that the user knows the correct software to use
16.2 so that the user knows what the file may contain from seeing the file extension
16.3 so that the user can search and sort files more effectively
16.4 so that the operating system can display the appropriate icon
16.5 so that the operating system can open the appropriate application
16.6 so that the application program knows how to load and interpret the data
17 File size is the measurement of how much disk space a file requires when it is stored. It is usually measured in bytes and multiples of bytes
18 A licence allows an individual or group to use a piece of software. Nearly all applications are licensed rather than sold. There are a variety of different types of software licenses:
18.1 ● Some are based on the number machines on which the licensed program can run
18.2 ● Others are based on the number of users that can use the program.
18.3 ● Most personal computer software licenses allow you to run the program on only one machine and to make copies of the software only for backup purposes. Some licenses also allow you to run the program on different computers as long as you don't use the copies simultaneously
19 costs
19.1 direct
19.1.1 ● software license (yearly, monthly , quarterly or one-off)
19.1.2 ● technical support to install the application- using your network manager
19.2 indirect
19.2.1 ● hardware to run the application - up-to-date operating system for instance
19.2.2 ● need for other associated applications- like antivirus software
19.2.3 ● maintenance
19.2.4 ● mandatory upgrade that cost additional fees
19.2.5 ● technical support
19.2.6 ● training on new system- the workforce need to be trained to be able to use the new application will take time from work-related activities and also cost of having the training delivered. However training is very important as it will help save money in the long-term by supporting more efficient working practices in the future
20 password
20.1 8 or more digits long
20.2 numbers
20.3 capital letters
20.4 symbols
21 A virus is a type of malware that spreads through normal programs. Once your device has a virus it may spread easily and quickly. A virus might just slow down your device - or it might be so severe you lose all your applications and documents!
21.1 Worms can spread from device to device, but unlike a virus they don’t need to attach themselves to other programs. Worms can copy themselves hundreds of times, so they can very quickly harm your device and other devices. A worm might copy itself onto your email account and then send a copy to all of your email contacts!
21.2 A trojan horse (or just a trojan) pretends it will be a useful and safe program, when actually it will try to attack your device. Trojans are named after the story of the Trojan Horse. It is said that many years ago the Greek army wheeled a large wooden horse to the gates of the city of Troy. The people of Troy thought it was a gift and wheeled it inside. They didn't know that inside the horse were Greek soldiers waiting to attack. Can you see why a trojan horse on a device is named after this story?
21.3 Spyware is software that installs itself onto devices and then steals personal information about the user, like passwords, email addresses and other important information. It often does it just by keeping a record of everything the user types, which is called key logging. Some spyware can even use your webcam without your knowledge.
22 macros:REM—Remark (comment in the macro) DIM—Declaring variables Data Types:- Text (characters) Number (Integer = whole number) Date Time Currency Boolean (Yes/No, True/False)
23 creative commons
23.1 The basic Creative Commons license is CC Attribution. It allows for all copying, modification and redistribution (even commercially), provided that the original author is attributed (with no implication of endorsement). Work under CC Attribution is essentially free to use. The CC Attribution license can be extended to CC AttributionShareAlike
24 copyright
24.1 fair use
24.1.1 “Fair use” is an exception to the exclusive rights held by the copyright owner. It exists in some countries such as the US and UK. Under it, in certain cases, using work without permission is possible. If someone’s usage is defined as fair use, then they don’t need to obtain a license. Essentially, using copyrighted material is a legal right.
24.2 public domain
24.2.1 Work that falls in the “public domain” basically has no copyright owner. You can use, modify and redistribute it to your heart’s content. An author can forfeit their copyright and, thus, put their work in the public domain
25 Vendor lock-in is a situation in which a customer using a product or service cannot easily transition to a competitor’s product or service. Vendor lock-in is usually the result of proprietary technologies that are incompatible with those of competitors. However, it can also be caused by inefficient processes or contract constraints, among other things.

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