Microbiology

Chloe Cotter
Mind Map by Chloe Cotter, updated more than 1 year ago
Chloe Cotter
Created by Chloe Cotter over 4 years ago
110
3

Description

A colourful mind map of microbiology at Leaving Certificate level for home economic students.

Resource summary

Microbiology
  1. Fungi
    1. Moulds, yeast & large fungi
      1. Do not make their own food
        1. Parasitic fungi feed on living matter - athlete's foot
          1. Saprophytic fungi feed on dead matter - mushrooms on soil
            1. Moulds
              1. Most are mesophiles - freezing inactivates growth
                1. Moisture is needed for growth
                  1. Classification of moulds
                    1. Phycomycetes
                      1. Reproduce asexually & sexually
                        1. Produce sporangium
                          1. Thrives at 30 degrees
                            1. E.g. Mucor & Rhizopus
                              1. Saprophytic mould
                                1. Reproduces asexually & sexually
                                  1. White hyphae
                                    1. Grows on bread & soil
                                      1. Saprophytic mould
                                        1. Reproduces asexually
                                          1. Fluffy white mycelium
                                            1. Grows on bread & vegetables
                                          2. Ascomycetes
                                            1. Reproduces asexually only
                                              1. Conidium develop from the hyphae
                                                1. Thrive at 20 -30 degrees
                                                  1. E.g. Penicillium & Aspergillis
                                                    1. Saprophytic mould - green/ blue
                                                      1. Used in blue-veined cheeses & antibiotics
                                                        1. Grows on cheese & bread
                                                          1. Saprophytic mould - black
                                                            1. Grows on fruit & vegetables
                                                      2. Moulds are aerobic & need oxygen so they can grow on the surface of food
                                                        1. pH levels - moulds grow in slightly acidic conditions
                                                          1. Mould needs time to multiply
                                                            1. Reproduction
                                                              1. Sexually
                                                                1. Two hyphae grow beside each other
                                                                  1. They fuse together
                                                                    1. The dividing wall breaks down & a zygospore develops
                                                                      1. Zygospore produces & stores spores
                                                                        1. It has a thick wall & protects the spores
                                                                          1. When conditions are suitable, the spores germinate & hyphae grow & extend out
                                                                            1. Spores are released into the air & the cycle begins again
                                                                2. Asexually
                                                                  1. A hypha grows upwards
                                                                    1. The head of a hypha
                                                                      1. Round (sporangium)
                                                                        1. Chain of spores (condium)
                                                                          1. The head bursts & releases spores which travel into the air
                                                                            1. If a spore finds suitable conditions, new mould growth will begin
                                                                    2. Moulds are saprophytes & feed on dead organic matter
                                                                      1. Structure
                                                                        1. Multi-cellular fungi & can be seen on food
                                                                          1. Each mould begins as a spore
                                                                            1. Develops a thread-like filament called a hypha which grows down into the food
                                                                              1. Hypha grows out & branches into hyphae
                                                                                1. Hyphae intertwine & become a mycelium
                                                                        2. Bacteria
                                                                          1. Bacteria is classified by shape & gram staining
                                                                            1. Shape
                                                                              1. Rod (bacillus)
                                                                                1. Food poisoning - salmonella, listeria
                                                                                2. Spherical (cocci)
                                                                                  1. Form
                                                                                    1. Clusters: staphylococci - food poisoning
                                                                                      1. Chains: streptococci - sore throat
                                                                                    2. Spiral (spirilla)
                                                                                      1. STD's - Syphilis
                                                                                3. Micro-organisms
                                                                                  1. Secrete enzymes onto their food source
                                                                                    1. These enzymes break down the food into simple compounds
                                                                                      1. These simple compounds are absorbed through the cell wall & provide nourishment for growth
                                                                                  2. Terminology
                                                                                    1. Parasites
                                                                                      1. Micro-organisms that feed on living matter - humans/animals
                                                                                      2. Saprophytes
                                                                                        1. Micro-organisms that feed on dead organic matter - soil, food
                                                                                        2. Psychrophiles
                                                                                          1. Micro-organisms that thrive at low temperatures between -5 to 20 degrees
                                                                                          2. Mesophiles
                                                                                            1. Micro-organisms that thrive at temperatures between 20 - 45 degrees
                                                                                            2. Thermophiles
                                                                                              1. Micro-organisms that thrive at temperatures between 45 - 75 degrees
                                                                                              2. Aerobic
                                                                                                1. Micro-organisms that need oxygen
                                                                                                2. Pathogens
                                                                                                  1. Bacteria that cause diseases
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