Globalisation

Jodie Goodacre
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-Levels Geography (Going Global) Mind Map on Globalisation, created by Jodie Goodacre on 05/05/2013.

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Jodie Goodacre
Created by Jodie Goodacre over 6 years ago
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Globalisation
1 A lengthening of connections between people and places, with products sourced from further away than ever before
2 A deepening of connections to other people and places in more areas of our lives
3 The lengthening and deepening of connections over time and space - Time Space Compression
4 Cultures are mixing and becoming more diverse
5 People, Countries and continents have always been connected in economic, cultural and political ways through:
5.1 Trade - Especially after 1492 when Columbus reached the Americas and the traditional world economy began to take shape
5.2 Colonialism - By the end of the nineteenth century, the British Empire directly controlled one-quarter of the world and its peoples
5.3 Cooperation - Since the First World War ended in 1918, international organisations similar to today's United Nations have existed
6 Since Europe's industrial revolution in the 18th century, societies around the world have experienced a fall in death rate followed by a fall in birth rate
7 Fall in death rates : Improved healthcare, sanitation, nutrition and education
8 Fall in Birth rates : Contraception, Education, Women wanting careers, Abortion legalised
9 The UK was the first nation to industrialise and its population increased from 5 million in 1750 to around 40 million by 1900 and has now reached 60 million
10 In countries such as India and Brazil changes are still taking place, and on an even larger scale
11 India, whose population was already large at 300 million in 1940, is predicted to reach a staggering 1.5 billion by 2030
12 1945, the year when the Second World War ended, worldwide economic reconstruction began (notably for Japan and Germany) and the International Monetary Fund was set up
13 Transnational corporations
13.1 Firms with operations spread across world in 2 or more countries
13.2 Global brands
13.3 Tesco
13.4 Coca-Cola
13.5 McDonalds
13.6 MTV
14 Transport
14.1 The arrival of intercontinental Boeing 747 in the 60s made international travel more commonplace
14.2 Recent expansion of cheap flights sector (EasyJet and Ryan air) has brought air travel to the masses in richer nations.
14.3 The growth in containerised shipping since the 1940s is another important factor
14.4 Around 200 million individual container movements are thought to take place each year
15 Computer and Internet technology
15.1 Computers have a profound effect on how businesses operate and where they can locate
15.2 Computer-aided design and manufacturing have revolutionised manufacturing processes
15.3 Make manufacturing more flexible and less reliant on human labour
15.4 Information and communications technology allows managers of offices and plants which are geographically distant to keep in touch
15.5 This has allowed TNCs to expand into new territories, either to make or sell their products
16 International organisations
16.1 Grew in power and influence throughout the twentieth century
16.2 IMF is the most important in globalisation
16.2.1 Based in Washington
16.2.2 Channels loans from the world's richest nations to countries that apply for help
16.2.3 In return the governments that receive loans must agree to run free-market economies that are open to investment from outside
16.2.4 Some IMF rules and regulations are sometimes controversial, especially structural adjustment programmes
16.2.4.1 Strict conditions imposed on countries receiving loans from the IMF and World Bank. Receiving governments may be required to cut back on healthcare, education, sanitation and housing programmes
16.2.4.1.1 For example, in Tanzania, water services to shanty towns in the capital Dar es Salaam were cut off when the country was required to privatise its water services as a condition of receiving $143 million debt relief
16.3 TNCs can enter countries more easily
16.4 World trade organisation
16.5 NGOs such as Oxfam and Christian Aid
17 Markets
17.1 On the rise globally
17.2 More and more people living in major world cities have enough wealth to be significant consumers of goods and services
17.3 In 2007, China already had an estimated 30 million affluent consumers, and it is predicted to become the world's largest market for consumer goods by 2015
17.4 Since 1945, several new stock exchanges have opened, notably Shanghai in 1990
17.5 The growth of major stock markets has been a major influence in globalisation
18 Television and radio, as well as printed books and newspapers can be received even in remote and impoverished rural areas
19 The Foreign Direct Investment that TNCs make in urban areas of poorer countries greatly boosts the employment opportunities on offer, thereby attracting rural migrants

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