Opium Wars

Katherine French
Mind Map by Katherine French, updated more than 1 year ago
Katherine French
Created by Katherine French over 4 years ago


Mind Map on Opium Wars, created by Katherine French on 01/09/2017.

Resource summary

Opium Wars
  1. Causes
    1. Opium Trade
      1. Started C7th (medicinal), C17th mixed with tobbaco and smoked
        1. East India Company
          1. Wanted to trade opium for tea, Chinese govt refused
            1. British traders smuggled in Opium, in exchange for tea, EIC made a huge profit
              1. EIC took control of of growing opium in Bengal, India, to maximise profits.
            2. 1799 - Jiaqing Emperor issued an imperial decree banning imports of opium, but the trade increased.
              1. EIC made 7 million silver dollars between 1806-09
              2. Qing govt were in Bejing, so unable to prevent trade to the south
                1. Commissioner Lin sent to stop the trade
                2. Influences/Actions of Commissioner Lin
                  1. British Reaction
                    1. British traders angry at the destruction of opium
                      1. demanded compensation from the Britsh govt
                      2. antagonism increases, British Sailors kill a Chinese villager
                        1. British govt refuse to send the men to be tried under Chinese law
                    2. Outbreak & Nature of War
                      1. Hostilities broke out when a British warship destroyed a Chinese Blockade
                        1. July 1840 British fleet proceed up Pearly River to Canton
                          1. After negotiations they attacked and occupied the city in May 1841
                            1. Following caimpaigns were sucessful
                          2. Qing launched a counter attack Spring 1842, but the British held out
                            1. British captured Nanjing August 1842
                            2. Consequences
                              1. Convention of Chuepi
                                1. British Plenipotentiary Charles Elliot & Chinese Imperial Commissioner Qishan
                                  1. drafted 20th January 1841, never ratified
                                    1. Cessions, habour, and island of Hong Kong to the British
                                      1. but Qing govt allowed to collect taxes
                                        1. British took formal possession 26th January 1841
                                        2. An indemnity of 6 million silver dollars to be paid to the British govt immediately
                                          1. Port of Canton to be opened to trade within 10 days of the new year
                                            1. Direct intercourse between the countries upon equal footing
                                              1. Taikoktow & Chuenpi back to Chinese
                                                1. returned 21st of January
                                                2. British prisoners in Ningpo released
                                              2. Treaty of Nanking
                                                1. Ended the first opium war, first unequal treaty
                                                  1. 29th of August 1842
                                                    1. ratified by Queen Victoria & Daoguang Emperor 9 months later
                                                    2. Foreign Trade
                                                      1. abolished monopoly of the Cohong and the 13 factories in Canton
                                                        1. Four additional treaty ports opened up alongside Canton; Amoy, Ningpo, Foochowfoo, and Shanghai
                                                          1. Trade in treaty ports subject to fixed tarriff
                                                            1. Britain gained right to send consuls to Treaty Ports
                                                              1. who can communicate directly with local officals
                                                            2. Reparations and Demobilisation
                                                              1. 21million silver dollars from China to Britain as total reparations for the war
                                                                1. 6m for the confiscated opium
                                                                  1. 3m for debts the Hong Kong merchants in Canton owed British Merhcnats
                                                                    1. 12m for the cost of the war
                                                                      1. Paid in annual installments over three years
                                                                        1. charged an annual interest rate of 5% if the debts weren't paid on time
                                                                      2. All British prisoners of war released
                                                                        1. amnesty for all Chinese subjects who co-operated with the British.
                                                                        2. British withdrew all troops from Nanking and the Grand canal after the treaty's ratification and the first installment of reparations paid
                                                                          1. British troops would remain in Gulangyu and Zhoushan until all reparations paid.
                                                                        3. Cession of Hong Kong
                                                                          1. made a crown colony
                                                                            1. a port for British traders to unload their goods
                                                                            2. Aftermath & Legacy
                                                                              1. Supplementary treaties should be established
                                                                                1. Treaty of the Bouge 3rd of October 1843
                                                                                  1. Suplimentary treaties left issues unfinished
                                                                                    1. State of the Opium trade
                                                                                      1. later legilised after the Second Opium War (Tianjin)
                                                                              2. Treaty of the Bouge
                                                                                1. Signed 3rd of October 1843
                                                                                  1. Granted extraterritoriality & most favoured nation status (to Britain)
                                                                                    1. Part of the "General Regulations of Trade with Britain and China"
                                                                                      1. laid down regulations for Sino-British trade
                                                                                        1. in particular where the Brits could reside in these ports
                                                                                          1. Brits allowed to buy property in treaty ports (and live there), but not allowed to travel or trade within the interior of China
                                                                                        2. Aftermath
                                                                                          1. paved way for the consolidation of the opening of China
                                                                                            1. 1845 Qing & British authorities promulgated the Shanghai Land Regulations
                                                                                              1. Paved way for the Shanghai International Settlement
                                                                                                1. similar agreements in other cities
                                                                                                  1. lead to Anglo-Sino social divide within cities
                                                                                          2. Second Opium War
                                                                                            1. Outbreak
                                                                                              1. Britain demanded more of China
                                                                                                1. all Chinese ports open to British trade
                                                                                                  1. opium trade made legal to opium to opium from India & British Burma
                                                                                                    1. British goods imports to be free of levies & tarrifs
                                                                                                      1. British embassy in Beijing
                                                                                                      2. Arrow incident 1856
                                                                                                        1. Chinese slow to release the ship, so Parmelston sends warships to shell Canton
                                                                                                          1. Anglo-French forces sieze Canton & Tianjin 1857
                                                                                                      3. Outcome
                                                                                                        1. China forced to recognise superiority of west
                                                                                                          1. Isolationism no longer possible
                                                                                                            1. Increase in opium imports
                                                                                                              1. Sino-Japanese War
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