Determinism

lauren_walji
Mind Map by lauren_walji, updated more than 1 year ago
lauren_walji
Created by lauren_walji about 7 years ago
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International Baccalaureate Philosophy (Freewill and determinism) Mind Map on Determinism, created by lauren_walji on 05/06/2013.

Resource summary

Determinism
1 A belief that a determinate set of conditions can only produce one possible outcome given fixed laws of nature
2 Everything that happens has a cause- universal causation
3 Given a total set of conditions under which a cause occurs only one effect is possbible - causal necessity
4 Economic determinism - Marx
4.1 people are a product of their economic circumstances. Humans have needs e.g. food. They 'produce the means of their subsistence' - and in their work they take on a 'mode of life'
4.1.1 E.g. a miner would be working in harsh conditions and meet few people, whereas shop keeper would have to be sociable. Hence work determines social relations
4.1.2 Division of labour will occur as people specialise in different modes of work- causes different modes of cooperation e.g. boss to worker. Differing work practices, lifestyles and relationships lead to development of different ideas, consciousness and language. Eventually different moralities, politics, attitudes to religion and philosophy
4.2 So who we are, who we relate to and how we think are determined by our working life
4.2.1 because of division of labour people's social relationships and conscious thought very and we become members of a class, with collective class consciousness
4.3 decisions of free leaders are the inevitable result of economic circumstances e.g. Iraq war need for oil and stable industry
4.3.1 But - surely mindset of leaders have developed through discussion and debate with a life of their own - ideas shape how the leaders see the world
4.3.1.1 E.g. personality of bush, influenced by religious beliefs was deciding factor in world events
4.3.1.2 does not take into account capacity to make decisions - once aware of economic conditioning i can choose to compensate
5 Fatalism
5.1 our futures will happen whatever we do, so if i acted differently the outcome would be the same. god decided in advance
5.1.1 denies causal connection (unlike predestination and determinism)
5.1.2 The appointment in Samara
5.1.3 Aristotle's sea battle
5.2 Criticisms
5.2.1 life is pointless, not really living it
5.2.2 implication of determinism
6 Predestination
6.1 God omniscient - god knows what you are going to do - you could not have done otherwise. If could do otherwise contradiction to gods omniscience
6.1.1 Calvinism - the elite go to heaven and can live by protestant ethic, picked before
6.2 People would say you are free but god knows what you are going to do. NO.
6.2.1 Can't be free if i could not have done otherswise. In knowing what i am going to do god has decreed what my life will be.
6.2.1.1 predestination possible only from theistic standpoint
7 Physicalism
7.1 the mind is the brain. Therefore chemical reactions in the brain constitute mental events like pain (c fibres firing)
7.1.1 Comparison with physical world - powerful effects of lightening - just electrical discharges in the atmosphere
7.2 Patricia churchland and tumour- man in 2003 whose sudden depraved sexual desires traced to brain tumour- removed and went back to normal. Came back and weirdness came back
7.3 Criticisms
7.3.1 1) Mental states not identical to brain states - cannot tell exactly what someone is feeling from brain scans, pain not identical to c fibre stimulation
7.3.1.1 Doctor may not think you are in pain because of injections but cannot ignore the cries of pain
7.3.2 2) Subjectivity of mental states e.g. love chemical exists and i could be made to feel love -questionable whether all different types of love could be accounted for in alteration of chemicals
7.3.2.1 How can subjectivity be translated into the language of chemicals?
7.3.3 3) Intentionality
8 Human action as a result of environment and hereditary factors
8.1 Darrow - Leopold and Loeb - argued result of background and upbringing
8.2 Psychological
8.2.1 Pavlov - people make decisions according to predetermined conditioned patterns e.g. classical conditioning
8.2.2 Skinner - operant conditioning
8.3 Spinoza
8.3.1 men think selves free because are conscious of their actions but ignorant of their causes. aware of process of deliberation according to different desires - but strongest always wins which is caused by prior events
8.3.1.1 Russel 'we may act as we please but we may not please as we please'
8.3.2 Freewill and illusion
8.3.3 Only when we are free to develop our innate abilities are we free, god, through the law of nature determine what we do, people are not free. Determined by our nature
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