Ecosystem concepts

Sharondeep
Mind Map by Sharondeep, updated more than 1 year ago
Sharondeep
Created by Sharondeep about 6 years ago
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Undergraduate Physical Geography (Biosphere) Mind Map on Ecosystem concepts, created by Sharondeep on 04/10/2014.
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Ecosystem concepts
1 Biosphere
1.1 Area between Earth and atmosphere where all life exists.
1.1.1 Includes all three parts of the physical environment; atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere.
2 Biomass
2.1 Sum total of all living matter within biosphere at any given time.
2.1.1 expressed as dry weight of tissue per unit area E.g. tonnes/hectare
2.2 Mainly of terrestrial origin due to veg efficiency on ratios of 100 to 1 compared to oceans.
2.3 Animal biomass greatest in rainforests.
2.4 Oceanic biomass greatest in tropical reefs.
3 Standing crop
3.1 Characteristic biomass of a particular ecosystem accumulated over time.
4 Environment
4.1 Collective term, includes all conditions in which an organism lives.
4.2 Abiotic (physical, non-living) Biotic (living).
4.2.1 Abiotic includes temp, water, light, wind, gases, pH, nutrients. Biotic is all living organisms.
5 Ecosystem
5.1 A community of living organisms and non-living things working together. Life cycles of all organisms are interlinked to the environment.
6 Community
6.1 describes all populations of species within a habitat.
7 Population
7.1 All individuals within a particular species within a habitat.
8 Biome
8.1 Large global ecosystem.
8.1.1 It is named after the most dominant veg found there E.g. tropical rainforest.
8.2 will contain climax communities
8.3 Biome type is usually controlled by climate but economic development has changed the nature of some biomes.
8.3.1 typography, soil (edaphic) and biotic factors control biome nature too.
9 Dead organic matter (DOM)
9.1 All dead, decaying plant and animal remains that make up surface litter and soil humus.
9.2 Important to ecosystem, may be greatly in excess of biomass in weight.
9.2.1 E.g. greater in temperate grasslands where DOM exceeds living biomass 5:1.
10 Habitat
10.1 The physical env within which an organism lives.
10.2 Used on three different scales: macro (continental) - meso (regional) and micro (small microscopic scale).
10.3 Organisms must be adapted to suit habitat. It must fall within the ecosystems ecological niche.
10.4 Four factors influence habitat: Climate (light, temp, moisture, exposure) Topography (altitude, temp, slope angle), Edaphic aspects (soil chemistry, nutrients, moisture) and biotic aspects (grazing influences and human activity).
10.4.1 In aquatic habitats, water chemistry and light penetration also vital.
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