1 DETECTION OF INTERMODAL
AS A POTENTIAL BASIS OF
SELF-PERCEPTION IN INFANCY.
1.1 BAHRICK & WATSON 1985
2.1 LEWIS &BROOKS-GUNN 1979. By
the end of the first year of life, infants
are able to discriminate a 'live' video
image of the self from a recorded
image of the self or a peer.
2.1.1 Proposed that this is based on the detection of contingent
visual stimulation from the live video image. That is -
movement of the infants hand is comparable to movement
of hand in video image. Propose that the earliest stages of
self-perception are probably based on the infants detection
of some form of response, contingent stimulation such as
the contingency between visual and proprioceptive
feedback from body motion.
3.1 Aim of current study is to directly
investigate infants capacity to detect
proprioceptive visual relations uniting
self-motion with a visual display of
3.1.1 As of yet the prior confounds
of eye contact, eye motion &
general body motion variablility -
basis of infants discrimination
between contingent image of
self & noncontingent image of
184.108.40.206 In this study 5mth old infants -tested for discrimination
between a live video image of self & non-contingent image
of a peer. Eye contact &eye motion variability -eliminated -
presenting the image of infants body from the waist down
- only foot & leg motion displayed. Body motion variability
4 EXPERIMENT 1 Infants -
discriminate between nonfacial
stimuli on basis of contingency &
whether they would preferentially
fixate on contingent or
4.1.1 20 5mth old infants
220.127.116.11 Infants seated in infant seat,
faced 2 TVs, video-tape videod
infants legs. All infants wore
18.104.22.168.1 Viewed screens for 4mins - one
screen live other screen legs&feet
of peer. Visual fixations were
monitored. Positions of displays
5 RESULTS FROM EXP 1
5.1 5mth olds can differentiate
between a contingent display of
their own leg & motion &
noncontingent display of peers
legs. Prefer noncontingent
6 EXPERIMENT 2 - looks at whether
infants make a visual comparison
between motions of own legs &
those pictured on visual display.
OR if infants use proprioceptive
information & detected an
intermodal relation between this
proprioceptive info & visual info
displayed on screen.
6.1.1 Infants live video display own legs and peers
22.214.171.124 Infants direct view of own body occluded - no longer
have access to visual info for their leg motion, Must rely
on proprioception for detecting contingency between leg
motion & video. Will infants be able to discriminate
between contingent & non contingent displays without
view to own leg motion?
126.96.36.199.1 Same procedure as exp 1 - except wooden tray in
front of infants & a bib - direct view of infants own
7 RESULTS EXP 2
7.1 5mth olds show visual discrimination of a
contingent display of their own leg motion &
noncontingent display of peers leg even
when their own body is occluded.
Suggests infants don't rely on visual info
for determing how bodies are moving.
7.1.1 Need not detect contingency by making a visual comaprison. May
be able to use proprioceptive info. Infants couuld have discriminated
images by detecting the intermodal relationship between the
non-visual proprioceptive info for motion & the visual display of that
8 EXP 3 Do infants recognise features of own body?
8.1 METHOD - video of contingent self& video
of non-contingent self. Only contingent
8.1.1 RESULTS - infants preference for
noncontingent. Evidence infants detection of
intermodal contingence between proprioceptive
& visual info for motion.
9 EXP 4. younger infants 3mth
olds. They have more
extreme looking proportions
than 5mth olds.
10 GENERAL DISCUSSION
10.1 5mth olds - differnetial visual fixation to a
contingent video of their legs moving & a
noncontingent video of peers legs moving.
10.1.1 Results of these studies taken together demonstrate
that information provided by a live image of one's own
body motion can be perceived through the detection of
invariant intermodal relations between visually &
proprioceptivity specified motion
10.1.1.1 5mth olds prefer to view non-contingent displays of self or
peer over perfectly contingent display of own motion. This
detection of proprioceptive visual invariants may be
fundamental to infants perception of the self & may underlie
the development of self-recognition in infancy.