Topic 1 - Agency - Additional articles

Rachel Burns
Mind Map by Rachel Burns, updated more than 1 year ago
Rachel Burns
Created by Rachel Burns almost 6 years ago
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University Self awareness Mind Map on Topic 1 - Agency - Additional articles, created by Rachel Burns on 04/15/2014.

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Topic 1 - Agency - Additional articles
1 DETECTION OF INTERMODAL PROPRIOCEPTIVE-VISUAL CONTINGENCY AS A POTENTIAL BASIS OF SELF-PERCEPTION IN INFANCY.
1.1 BAHRICK & WATSON 1985
2 BACKGROUND
2.1 LEWIS &BROOKS-GUNN 1979. By the end of the first year of life, infants are able to discriminate a 'live' video image of the self from a recorded image of the self or a peer.
2.1.1 Proposed that this is based on the detection of contingent visual stimulation from the live video image. That is - movement of the infants hand is comparable to movement of hand in video image. Propose that the earliest stages of self-perception are probably based on the infants detection of some form of response, contingent stimulation such as the contingency between visual and proprioceptive feedback from body motion.
2.1.1.1 Evidence newborns/2mth/3mth infants can discriminate contingent/non-contingent
3 AIM
3.1 Aim of current study is to directly investigate infants capacity to detect proprioceptive visual relations uniting self-motion with a visual display of motion
3.1.1 As of yet the prior confounds of eye contact, eye motion & general body motion variablility - basis of infants discrimination between contingent image of self & noncontingent image of self/peer unresolved.
3.1.1.1 In this study 5mth old infants -tested for discrimination between a live video image of self & non-contingent image of a peer. Eye contact &eye motion variability -eliminated - presenting the image of infants body from the waist down - only foot & leg motion displayed. Body motion variability controlled.
4 EXPERIMENT 1 Infants - discriminate between nonfacial stimuli on basis of contingency & whether they would preferentially fixate on contingent or non-contingent display.?
4.1 METHOD
4.1.1 20 5mth old infants
4.1.1.1 Infants seated in infant seat, faced 2 TVs, video-tape videod infants legs. All infants wore yellow booties
4.1.1.1.1 Viewed screens for 4mins - one screen live other screen legs&feet of peer. Visual fixations were monitored. Positions of displays -counterbalanced.
5 RESULTS FROM EXP 1
5.1 5mth olds can differentiate between a contingent display of their own leg & motion & noncontingent display of peers legs. Prefer noncontingent display.
6 EXPERIMENT 2 - looks at whether infants make a visual comparison between motions of own legs & those pictured on visual display. OR if infants use proprioceptive information & detected an intermodal relation between this proprioceptive info & visual info displayed on screen.
6.1 METHOD
6.1.1 Infants live video display own legs and peers
6.1.1.1 Infants direct view of own body occluded - no longer have access to visual info for their leg motion, Must rely on proprioception for detecting contingency between leg motion & video. Will infants be able to discriminate between contingent & non contingent displays without view to own leg motion?
6.1.1.1.1 Same procedure as exp 1 - except wooden tray in front of infants & a bib - direct view of infants own body occluded.
7 RESULTS EXP 2
7.1 5mth olds show visual discrimination of a contingent display of their own leg motion & noncontingent display of peers leg even when their own body is occluded. Suggests infants don't rely on visual info for determing how bodies are moving.
7.1.1 Need not detect contingency by making a visual comaprison. May be able to use proprioceptive info. Infants couuld have discriminated images by detecting the intermodal relationship between the non-visual proprioceptive info for motion & the visual display of that motion.
8 EXP 3 Do infants recognise features of own body?
8.1 METHOD - video of contingent self& video of non-contingent self. Only contingent relationship differed
8.1.1 RESULTS - infants preference for noncontingent. Evidence infants detection of intermodal contingence between proprioceptive & visual info for motion.
9 EXP 4. younger infants 3mth olds. They have more extreme looking proportions than 5mth olds.
10 GENERAL DISCUSSION
10.1 5mth olds - differnetial visual fixation to a contingent video of their legs moving & a noncontingent video of peers legs moving.
10.1.1 Results of these studies taken together demonstrate that information provided by a live image of one's own body motion can be perceived through the detection of invariant intermodal relations between visually & proprioceptivity specified motion
10.1.1.1 5mth olds prefer to view non-contingent displays of self or peer over perfectly contingent display of own motion. This detection of proprioceptive visual invariants may be fundamental to infants perception of the self & may underlie the development of self-recognition in infancy.
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