Reducing the Impact of Earthquakes

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Undergraduate Geology - Part 1 (Earthquakes) Mind Map on Reducing the Impact of Earthquakes, created by siobhan.quirk on 05/07/2013.
siobhan.quirk
Mind Map by siobhan.quirk, updated more than 1 year ago
siobhan.quirk
Created by siobhan.quirk about 11 years ago
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Resource summary

Reducing the Impact of Earthquakes
  1. Planning
    1. Forecasting the likely number and magnitude of future eathquakes.
      1. May ban buildings from fault lines, areas of alluvial deposits which may suffer liquefaction, and areas liable to landslides
        1. Plan emergency procedures when earthquakes happen
        2. Building Design
          1. Too expensive to completely prevent damage to buildings.
            1. Designed to protect people from total collapse, falling structures and broken glass.
              1. Wooden sturctures are flexible and accept a certain amount of strain.
                1. Steel-reinforced concrete is safer than bricks and masonry for larger buildings.
                  1. Foundations reinforced by pumping liquid cement into network of micropiles drilled into ground.
                2. Ground or base isolation systems
                  1. Building rests on large rollers, rubber pads, springs or sliders coated with non-stick Teflon
                    1. Inertial mass of building keeps it stationary while ground moves beneath, or allows building to move without damage.
                      1. Older buildings can have this system inserted for future protection (Utah State Capitol)
                    2. Resisting shear forces
                      1. Each part of the structure is connected to other parts to prevent collapse.
                        1. Diagonal bracing by cables or rigid girders strengthens framework.
                          1. Floors are fixed to walls to add rigidity and prevent pancaking.
                            1. Shear walls (extending full height of the building) add rigidity
                          2. Absorbing sway
                            1. Tall buildings are designed to sway, absorbing energy through flexible supports and materials (rubber)
                              1. Hydraulic systems, (sometimes computer controlled) dampen the movement, like shock absorbers in cars
                                1. Flexible connections between different parts of buildings can help to counter movements
                                2. Services
                                  1. Broken gas mains and power lines can cause fires, and fractured water mains prevent fire being put out.
                                    1. Use flexible piping for movement
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