The Teleological Argument

jenny_allen
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Philosophy Mind Map on The Teleological Argument, created by jenny_allen on 05/08/2013.

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jenny_allen
Created by jenny_allen over 6 years ago
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The Teleological Argument
1 'Telos' = Greek word for end/result of a process or course of action.
1.1 Argument looks at things in the world to show they have been designed for a purpose/reason, concluding that God is the 'designer'.
1.1.1 A posteriori argument
1.1.2 1. Argument based on purpose.
1.1.3 2. Argument based on regularity.
2 AQUINAS
2.1 Sets out Five Ways in which he thought he could demonstrate God's existence. (Summa Theologie).
2.1.1 The last of the Five Ways is a form of DESIGN ARGUMENT.
2.2 1. You can see that everything in the natural world follows natural laws, even if things are not conscious, thinking beings.
2.3 2. If things follow natural laws they tend to do well and have a goal/purpose.
2.4 3. If a thing cannot think for itself it does not have any goal/purpose unless directed by something that thinks.
2.4.1 e.g. an arrow - can only be directed to its goal/used for its purpose by someone such as an archer.
2.5 4. We can conclude that everything in the natural world that does not think for itself is directed to its goal by something that does think - God.
2.5.1 Even though human beings think for themselves, the reason why human beings exist has to be explained as human beings are not immortal.
2.6 Suggests natural laws direct things and were set up by something which thinks (God).
2.7 Argument by REGULARITY
2.7.1 Argument based on the fact that things in nature follow certain laws that lead to certain results. Scientific laws which are predictable, regular and unvarying e.g. gravity.
2.7.1.1 Example of an archer
2.7.1.1.1 1. Arrow hits the target despite not having a mind of its own (an effect).
2.7.1.1.2 2. Archer (has a mind of their own) shot the arrow (a cause).
2.7.1.1.3 3. Things in the natural world follow natural laws even though they don't necessarily have a mind of their own (an effect).
2.7.1.1.4 4. Someone with a mind of their own caused the natural world to behave this way (a cause) = GOD.
2.8 WEAKNESSES
2.8.1 Assumes things in the natural world have a purpose/are aimed towards a goal.
2.8.2 May not be correct to ASSUME natural laws were set down by a designer.
3 WILLIAM PALEY
3.1 Argues that natural world provides examples of complexity and design.
3.2 WATCH ANALOGY
3.2.1 PART 1
3.2.1.1 If you were to find a watch you would be able to establish that...
3.2.1.1.1 The watch was for a PURPOSE
3.2.1.1.2 The parts work together/are FIT for a purpose
3.2.1.1.3 The parts are ORDERED and put together in a way to make the watch function.
3.2.1.1.4 If ARRANGED in a different way the watch does not work/fulfill its purpose.
3.2.1.1.5 CONCLUSION = watch maker must have formed the watch for its purpose
3.2.2 PART 2
3.2.2.1 If the watch had the imaginary function of producing other watches, the admiration for the watchmaker would be increased.
3.2.2.1.1 CONCLUSION = any person finding such a watch would conclude that the design of the watch implies 'the presence of intelligence and mind'
3.2.2.1.1.1 Paley - Natural Theology
3.2.3 The complexity of nature is far greater than any machine humans can make - so the whole of nature requires a grand designer (God).

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