Living Things 2

Scott Church
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE Geography (Living Things) Mind Map on Living Things 2, created by Scott Church on 04/21/2014.

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Scott Church
Created by Scott Church over 5 years ago
Coastlines 1
Scott Church
Coastlines 4
Scott Church
Tourism GCSE YEAR 11
Thomas Harris
Higher Level Economics
Jim hammerton
F211- Module 1 Cells, exchange and transport
eilish.waite
Tourism 1
Scott Church
Coastlines 2
Scott Church
Living Things 1
Scott Church
Tourism 3
Scott Church
Coastlines 3
Scott Church
Living Things 2
1 ***THE AMAZON RAINFOREST***
1.1 Location
1.1.1 The equator runs through the Amazon meaning it's very hot as the curvature of the Earth which point is nearest the sun. It's hot all year round 25ºc+. At around 1pm-3pm they get daily rainfall which is a short and sharp heavy downpour. This is called convectional rainfall. It is then evaporated and the cycle repeats daily.
1.2 Climate
1.2.1 Annual Rainfall is 1800m. No drought in the rainforest. Av. temp is 25-30ºc. There is a little variation in temp. Perfect growing conditions. Constant sunshine through the year and lots of rain daily. Perfect for photosynthesis
1.3 Rainforest structure/adaptations
2 DESTRUCTION OF THE RAINFOREST
2.1 Mining
2.1.1 Huge deposits of iron ore, gold, copper, bauxite and other minerals have been discovered in the rainforest. Mining companies have felled trees and built roads through the forest to reach these deposits
2.2 New Roads
2.2.1 Many new roads have been built deep into the rainforest. The Trans-Amazonian Highway is the longest. It stretches 3300 miles across Brazil from East to West. The roads help move timber, cattle and crops to markets. People from other parts of Brazil have settled along these roads.
2.3 Power stations
2.3.1 An unlimited water supply and ideal river conditions have led to the development of many hydro-electric power (HEP) stations. HEP stations provide cheap and plentiful energy for industry, transport and domestic use. More than 125 new HEP dams are to be built in the next 15 years. The reservoirs behind the dams flood large areas of forest.
2.4 Ranching
2.4.1 Large areas of the forest have been bought by multi-national companies for cattle ranching. These companies have burnt down the first and replaced the trees with grass. The beef from the cattle ranches has largely gone to fast-food chains in the USA and Europe to make into burgers/
2.5 IMPACTS
2.5.1 -Increase of CO2 levels . . . -Increase of greenhouse gases . . . -Decrease of oxygen -Leads to global warming . . . -Endangered species (animals) . . . -Undiscovered medicine in plants . . . -Kayapo and Yanomami tribe . . . -Loss of traditional culture . . . -Flooding could occur . . . -Chemicals from mining end up in the amazon river such as gold . . . -Multinational Companies:money goes to MEDC's not Brazil . . . -Land becomes infertile as trees are cut down. Soil will become dry. Convectional rain washes out the nutrients (leaching) . . . -Soil washed away as no roots are holding it together . . . -No leaves to put nutrients in soil. Becomes infertile . . . -No plants to give off water vapour, no clouds formed, environment becomes dry . . . -Infertile, less productive animals.
3 SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF AMAZON RAINFOREST
3.1 Shifting Cultivation
3.1.1 1. A clearance is made by cutting down trees and burning the vegetation. This is called slash and burn.
3.1.2 2. Crops are planted and grow well in the warm, humid conditions.
3.1.3 3. Within four or five years the soil becomes exhausted and the harvest gets poor and poor.
3.1.4 4. The clearing is abandoned and the farmers move on
3.1.5 5. The clearing gradually grows over and the natural forest returns
3.2 Kayapo information
3.2.1 As well as hunting and gathering food, the Kayapo make their own 'gardens' in small forest clearings. In these they grow fruit trees and crops including manioc, maize, sweet potatoes, pineapples, peppers and beans. The Indian women especially, are expert forest gardeners. They work in a careful and organised way, improving the soil at the same time. After a while, however, the heavy rains wash away the nutrients in the soil and crops no longer grow so well. The Kayapo then move away and make a new forest garden. This type of farming is called shifting cultivation. It is sustainable as they replenish the land as they move around every 5 years. They also burn down the trees to get nutrients to put in the soil to replenish it. However they let the jungle regrow so they are not destroying the rainforest. The Kayapo's usually only use small plots of land to make it easier for the jungle to regrow.
3.3 1. Shifting cultivation - Sustainable way of farming, move around every 5 years so the earth can replenish itself. 2. Agroforestry - Plant trees within the crops. Hold soil together. Protects from heavy rainfall. Nutrients from leaves. 3. Ecotourism - A rapidly growing form of tourism often encouraged and highly profitable. 4. Afforestation - Instead of cutting down the tree's, they replant them. Companies that cut down trees should plant one for every one they cut down. 5. Monitoring - Satellite technology and photography to check rainforest are legal and follow guide lines to ensure sustainability. 6. Selective logging - Tree's measured and only felled when a certain height. Gives young trees a life span and the area will regain fully in 30-50 years. 7. Education - Insures those involved in management, incl. general public in MEDC's understand principles. 8. Forest Reserves - Areas of forest protected from exploitation and maintained as natural environments.
4 THE MILLENNIUM ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT
4.1 What is it?
4.1.1 MEA is a report released into the state of the environment in 2005. Over 1,000 experts and scientists were involved. They concluded that ecosystems have been destroyed in order to supply people with resources (e.g food, energy, water, clothing)
4.2 Proof that ecosystems are being managed unsustainably?
4.2.1 1. Modern fishing techniques do not allow fish stocks to recover. The amount of fish in the seas is decreasing rapidly. 2. The 2 billion people who live in the worlds driest areas are increasingly at risk from drought and poverty. 3. We are using up fresh water supplies at a rate that is faster than they can be replaced. Climate change will cause massive problems for many ecosystems. The increasing use of artificial fertilities and burning of fossil fuels has doubled the amount of nitrogen pollution. This is causing problems in river and marine ecosystems. The destruction of ecosystems (for example, forests, coral reefs, and wet lands) causing the extinction of many species at a scale that is greater than anything seen in the past.

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