1.1 HARD ENGINEERING - using structures
or machinery to control coastal
processes (usually expensive)
1.1.1 Sea wall - A concrete wall which is curved on
the underside to deflect the power of the waves
18.104.22.168 Advantages: Very
effective and stops erosion
22.214.171.124 Disadvantages: Expensive 1km=£1-2 million.
Looks ugly and only lasts 75 years. However,
compared to others it's quite a long time
1.1.2 Groynes - Structures either wood or steel
to stop longshore drift, anchors the beach
material protecting the base of cliffs
126.96.36.199 Advantages: Effective and traps sand. Cheaper
as it is made of wood. £5,000 per metre
188.8.131.52 Disadvantages: Don't last very long; 25 years. Visual impact not the
best. Because they don't trap the sand, the next beach has less sand
1.1.3 Rip Rap - Large bolders on the beach that absorb
wave energy so they prevent erosion further up
184.108.40.206 Advantages: Very effective of reflecting the waves. The
boulders are very cheap, however the transport costs more
220.127.116.11 Disadvantages: The sea could move them over time
as they get eroded and become lighter in weight
1.1.4 Gabions - Metal cage filled with
stones. Placed in front of coast
18.104.22.168 Advantages: They are cheap and are effective
as they stop erosion. About £20 for 1 box
22.214.171.124 Disadvantages: An eyesore. Metal looks unnatural
on a beach. Only lasts 20 years as metal erodes.
1.2 SOFT ENGINEERING - when you work with
nature. The most sustainable options which has
less impact on the environment (cheaper)
1.2.1 Beach Nourishment - Putting the sand back on the
beach as it could of moved due to longshore drift
126.96.36.199 Advantages: Looks natural. Continue to attract tourists and economy goes up
188.8.131.52 Disadvantages: Have to keep repeating it due to longshore drift.
Lorries, tippers and flatteners needed. Increase in CO2
1.2.2 Manage Retreat - Letting the sea flood
the land, farmland and areas of low value
184.108.40.206 Advantages: Very cheap, effective and is natural
220.127.116.11 Disadvantages: Doesn't stop anything from happening and doesn't
solve anything. Becomes marshland. Debris deposited by sea
2 How should coastal environments be managed in the future?
2.1 Why are sea levels changing?
2.1.1 Climate change causes water to expand as it
gets warmer therefore the ocean sea level
rises. Also ice sheets that cover parts of
Antarctica and Greenland are melting and
therefore flowing into the sea.
2.2 Why are some coastlines more at risk?
2.2.1 Some coasts are sinking or subsiding. This is
caused by river estuaries and deltas sinking under
their own weight. As more sediment is deposited
and becomes more compact, the land will start to
subside. **NEW ORLEANS IS SUBSIDING 28MM
PER YEAR!**. In some parts of England, the crust
has been sinking ever since the ice melted 10,000
years ago at the end of the Ice Age. The parts that
were covered in ice were under pressure but when
the ice melted they began to rise as a result other
areas subsided. This is called post-glacial rebound.
The area in the UK that is subsiding is the
South-East because of the Northern parts of UK
were covered in layers of ice.
2.3 How will these changes to our coastline affect people?