Coastlines 4

Scott Church
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE Geography (Coastlines) Mind Map on Coastlines 4, created by Scott Church on 04/22/2014.

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Scott Church
Created by Scott Church over 5 years ago
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1 ***BANGLADESH***
1.1 The country
1.1.1 South Asia. Neighbours India. Capital is Dhaka. 25% of country is only 1 metre above sea level. Most of the land forms a delta by Canges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (rivers). Deposition takes place in these rivers therefore the land is subsiding.
1.2 Physical causes of flooding
1.2.1 Huge flood plain and delta. Snowmelt from Himalayas in late spring and summer. Bangladesh experiences heavy monsoon rains, especially in highlands. Tropical storms bring heavy rains and coastal flooding. The main cause was the above average & long period of heavy rain which caused all 3 rivers to have their peak flow at the same time.
1.3 Human causes of flooding
1.3.1 Deforestation in Nepal and the Himalayas increases run off and adds to deposition and flooding downstream. Urbanisation of the flood plain has increased magnitude and frequency of floods. Global warming is blamed for sea level rise, increased snow melt and increased rainfall in the region (monsoons and cyclones). Poorly maintained embankments (levees) leak and collapse in times of high discharge.
1.4 The effects on the people
1.4.1 1998 FLOOD: Over 50% of the land area was flooded. Over 1,000 killed. 7 million homes destroyed. 25 million people homeless.
2 SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF THE COASTLINE
2.1 Shoreline Management Plan (SMP)
2.1.1 Do nothing and allow the gradual erosion
2.1.2 Hold the line. Use hard engineering such as timber or rock groynes and concrete sea walls to protect the coastline, or add extra sand to a beach to make it more effective at absorbing wave energy.
2.1.3 Retreat the line. Punch a hole in an existing coastal defence to allow land to flood naturally between low and high tide (the intertidal zone)
2.1.4 Advance the line. Build new coastal defences further out to sea
2.2 ***ESSEX*** (South East of England. North East of London. Coastal)
2.2.1 Management Realignment
2.2.1.1 Advantages: Sea defences are too expensive. The land is poor-quality farmland. Do not have to keep maintaining, therefore you save money. Conservationists (environment people) believe it was a good idea as it wasn't protected land, and this action could bring new wildlife to the local area.
2.2.1.2 Disadvantages: Some farmers do not want their land to be flooded. Peoples homes could be effected. Sea level rise won't make a difference by a few cm's. Instead of flooding the land, we could use the land to build more houses. UK is experiencing a housing crisis and the most popular place is the Thames Gateway in the South East of England.
2.2.1.3 How does it work?
2.2.1.3.1 Retreating the line. Holes being punched through the embankments. Invading sea water moves slowly across the land at high tide and deposits mud. The deposits of mud absorbs wave energy and acts like a natural buffer against erosion. Prevent flooding of homes and businesses in Thames estuary.

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