Thorax Anatomy

Hannah Tribe
Mind Map by Hannah Tribe, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Tribe
Created by Hannah Tribe almost 6 years ago
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Description

Degree Anatomy Mind Map on Thorax Anatomy, created by Hannah Tribe on 04/24/2014.
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Resource summary

Thorax Anatomy
1 Pleural Cavities
1.1 Parietal Pleura

Annotations:

  • Aspects: --> Cervical --> Costal --> Mediastinal --> Diaphragmatic
1.1.1 = lines the chest wall, secretes pleural fluid to reduce friction
1.2 = potential space between parietal and visceral layers
1.2.1 Pneumothorax causes it to become real space - air enters and lung collapses due to breakage of surface tension
1.2.2 Lungs grow INTO pleural sac during development (budding week 4, splitting into 2 week 6)
1.3 Visceral Pleura
1.3.1 = firmly attached to the lungs, continuous with mediastinal pleura
1.4 Pleural Recesses

Annotations:

  • Parts of pleural cavity NOT filled during QUIET inspiration
1.4.1 Costo-diaphragmatic
1.4.2 Costo-mediastinal
2 Lungs

Annotations:

  • Surfaces: --> Costal --> Vertebral --> Diaphragmatic --> Cardiac
2.1 Hilum (Root)
2.1.1 Bronchi (posterior)

Annotations:

  • Cartilagenous 
2.1.2 Pulmonary arteries (superior)
2.1.3 Pulmonary veins (inferior)
2.1.4 Bronchial lymph nodes?

Annotations:

  • may appear black due to pollution
2.1.5 Pulmonary ligament (inferior to hilum)

Annotations:

  • Just a fold of pleural membrane - attaches lung to mediastinum
2.2 Fissures
2.2.1 Oblique (on both)
2.2.2 Horizontal (RIGHT only)
2.3 Cardiac notch (LEFT)

Annotations:

  • where heart sits
2.4 Lingula (LEFT)

Annotations:

  • Angle between diagphragmatic surface and cardiac notch
2.5 Impressions
2.5.1 LEFT
2.5.1.1 Aortic arch
2.5.1.2 LEFT common carotid (vertically)
2.5.1.3 LEFT subclavian artery
2.5.2 RIGHT
2.5.2.1 SVC
2.5.2.2 Azygous arch
2.6 Tracheobronchial lymph nodes
2.6.1 Tracheal

Annotations:

  • either side of trachea
2.6.2 Bronchial

Annotations:

  • around bifurcation
2.6.3 Bronchiopulmonary

Annotations:

  • hilum of lungs
2.6.4 Pulmonary

Annotations:

  • within lungs
3 Positions of viscera
3.1 Standing up
3.1.1 Aortic arch = thoracic plane (T4/5)
3.1.2 Trachea bifurcation BELOW plane
3.1.3 Diaphragm central tendon = mid-xiphoid process (T9/10)
3.2 Lying down
3.2.1 Aortic arch ABOVE thoracic plane
3.2.2 Trachea bifurcation = plane
3.2.3 Diaphragm central tendon = xiphisternal junction (T9)
4 Pericardium
4.1 Fibrous sac
4.2 Sinuses
4.2.1 Transverse pericardial

Annotations:

  • separates aorta and pulmonary trunk
4.2.2 Oblique pericardial

Annotations:

  • posterior; behind left atrium
4.3 Pericarditis

Annotations:

  • Inflammation of the pericardium
4.3.1 Can causes capillaries to become leaky = pericardial effusion
4.3.1.1 Fibrous sac cannot expand so limits expansion of heart = lowered CO
4.3.2 Chest pain
4.4 Heart
4.4.1 RIGHT atrium
4.4.1.1 Inputs = SVC, IVC, coronary sinus
4.4.1.2 Smooth part

Annotations:

  • Crista terminalis
4.4.1.3 Fibrous muscle

Annotations:

  • Musculi pectinati
4.4.1.4 Fossa ovalis

Annotations:

  • Should be closed - foramen ovale in embryo
4.4.1.5 Tricuspud valve
4.4.1.5.1 3 cusps

Annotations:

  • Anterior, posterior, septal
4.4.1.5.2 Connected to chordae tendinae
4.4.1.5.2.1
4.4.2 RIGHT ventricle
4.4.2.1
4.4.2.2 Papillary muscles

Annotations:

  • innervated by Purkinje fibres
4.4.2.3 Irreg. muscle fibres

Annotations:

  • = Trabeculae carnae
4.4.2.4 Moderator band

Annotations:

  • nerve tissue connecting anterior papillary muscle to septum
4.4.2.5 Infundibulum

Annotations:

  • Smooth wall leading to pulmonary valve
4.4.2.5.1 Pulmonary valve

Annotations:

  • 3 semilunar cusps
4.4.2.5.1.1 Pulmonary trunk
4.4.2.5.1.1.1 LUNGS
4.4.2.6
4.4.3 LEFT atrium
4.4.3.1 Input: pulmonary veins
4.4.3.2 Auricle has musculi pectinati, but smooth inside
4.4.3.3 Fossa ovalis depression
4.4.3.4 Mitral valve
4.4.4 LEFT ventricle
4.4.4.1 Mitral valve

Annotations:

  • Bicuspid - anterior and posterior
4.4.4.2 Irreg. muscle fibres

Annotations:

  • trabeculae carnae
4.4.4.3 Chordae tendinae + paillary muscles
4.4.4.4 Aortic valve

Annotations:

  • Semilunar
4.4.4.4.1 Aorta
4.4.4.4.1.1 BODY
4.4.5 Coronary vessels
4.4.5.1 RIGHT coronary artery

Annotations:

  • in atrio-ventricular groove
4.4.5.1.1 RIGHT marginal
4.4.5.1.1.1 Small Cardiac Vein
4.4.5.1.2 Posterior Inter-ventricular

Annotations:

  • (Right posterior descending)
4.4.5.1.2.1 Middle cardiac vein
4.4.5.2 LEFT coronary artery
4.4.5.2.1 Circumflex
4.4.5.2.2 LAD
4.4.5.2.2.1 Great Cardiac Vein
5 Thoracic Duct
5.1 Arises from the cisterna chyli

Annotations:

  • root of the mesentery of the small intestine
5.2 Drains lymph fluid
5.2.1 Abdomen
5.2.2 Pelvis
5.2.3 LEFT thorax
5.2.4 Head and neck
5.2.5 Upper and lower limbs
5.3 Empties into vein at junction of IJV and left subclavian
5.4
6 Trachea
6.1 C shaped

Annotations:

  • Because oesophagus is behind it
6.2 Rings of cartilage

Annotations:

  • hold trachea open
6.3 Bifurcates at T4/5

Annotations:

  • (transverse thoracic plane)
6.3.1 "Carina"

Annotations:

  • mucus membrane here responsible for cough reflex
6.4 Lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Annotations:

  • glands to secrete mucus
7 Oesophagus
7.1 Pierces diaphragm at T10

Annotations:

  • through muscular part to help prevent reflux
7.2 3 constrictions
7.2.1 Upper/ Pharyngeal

Annotations:

  • level of cricoid cartilage
7.2.2 Middle/ aortic

Annotations:

  • at bifurcation of trachea
7.2.3 Inferior/ diaphragmatic

Annotations:

  • at piercing of diaphragm (lower oesophageal sphincter)
7.2.4 = Likely place for obstructions
7.3 Oesophageal plexus
7.3.1 Vagus fibres
7.3.2 From sympathetic trunk
7.4 Thick, stratified epithelium

Annotations:

  • to resist damage/abrasion as food travels down throat
7.5 Muscular, flat

Annotations:

  • except when food is passing down it
8 Thoracic vertebrae
8.1 Body
8.2 Lamina

Annotations:

  • between transverse and spinous processes
8.3 Pedicles

Annotations:

  • between body and transverse processes
8.4 Articulations
8.4.1 Superior/ Inferior articular facets

Annotations:

  • articulate with inferiort/superior articular facets of vertebra above/below
8.4.2 Transverse costal facets

Annotations:

  • articulate with tubercles of ribs
8.4.3 Superior/inferior demifacets

Annotations:

  • on vertebral body - articulate with head of rib at that level and one below
9 Superior thoracic aperture
9.1 Rib 1, manubrium, T1
10 Inferior thoracic aperture
10.1 Xiphoid process, inf. margin of costal cartilages, ribs 11+12, T12
11 Ribs
11.1 Typical (2-10)
11.1.1 Head
11.1.2 Neck
11.1.3 Tubercle
11.1.4 Angle

Annotations:

  • most likely to break (not in infants)
11.1.5 Body
11.1.6 Costal groove

Annotations:

  • protects neurovascular bundle
11.2 Rib 1
11.2.1 Head
11.2.2 Neck
11.2.3 Tubercle
11.2.4 Angle
11.2.5 Body
11.3 Ribs 11+12
11.3.1 Head
11.3.2 Angle
11.3.3 Body
11.4 Infants - horizontal
11.5 Age - cartilage ossifies

Annotations:

  • becomes harder to move ribcage to breathe
12 Sternum
12.1 Manubrium
12.1.1 Jugular notch
12.1.2 Articular sites for clavicle and rib 1

Annotations:

  • primary cartilagenous joints = no movement
12.1.3 Superior demifacet for rib 2
12.2 Body
12.2.1 Inferior demifacet for rib 2
12.2.2 Articular facets for ribs 3 - 6
12.2.3 Superior demifacet for rib 7
12.3 Xiphoid process
12.3.1 Inferior demifacet for rib 7
13 Breast
13.1 Fat lobules
13.2 Suspensory ligaments
13.3 Secretory lobules

Annotations:

  • produce milk
13.4 Lactiferous ducts
13.5 Lactiferous sinuses
13.6 Simple mammary gland

Annotations:

  • All lobules supplying one duct
13.7 Complex mammary gland

Annotations:

  • All glands serving one nipple
13.8 Nipple
13.9 Blood supply
13.9.1 Medial + Lateral mammary artieries

Annotations:

  • from internal thoracic
13.9.2 Drains to axillary vein
13.10 Innervated by anterior + lateral cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves 4 - 6
13.11 Lymph drains to axillary nodes

Annotations:

  • Anterior Posterior Infraclavicular Central Apical Lateral
13.11.1 Some to parasternal or other breast
14 Blood Vessels
14.1 Posterior intercostals

Annotations:

  • 11 pairs: Upper 2 from costocervical trunk of subclavian Lower 9 from thoracic aorta
14.2 Anterior intercostals

Annotations:

  • 9 pairs: Upper 6 from internal thoracic artery  Lower 3 from musculophrenic artery
14.3 Internal thoracic artery
14.3.1 Musculophrenic
14.3.2 Superior epigastric
15 Nerves
15.1 Intercostal nerves

Annotations:

  • in costal grooves of ribs
15.2 Long thoracic

Annotations:

  • supplies serratus anterior
15.3 Medial + Lateral Pectoral

Annotations:

  • Medial = both Pec major and minor Lateral = ONLY Pec major
16 Muscles
16.1 Pectoralis Major

Annotations:

  • Origins: medial half of clavicle, sternum, costal cartilages 1-7 Insertions: Proximal part of humerus Innervation: Medial and Lateral Pectoral nerves
16.2 Pectoralis Minor

Annotations:

  • Origins: Surface of ribs 3-5 Insertions: Coracoid process Innervation: Medial pectoral nerves
16.3 Diaphragm
16.3.1 Phrenic nerve (C3,4,5)

Annotations:

  • Central tendon developed at C2, then picked up myotomes from C3,4,5 during development
16.3.2 Attachments
16.3.2.1 Sternum
16.3.2.2 Ribs
16.3.2.3 Lumbar vertebrae

Annotations:

  • L and R crurae
16.3.2.4 Lateral arcuate ligaments

Annotations:

  • over quadratus lumborum muscle
16.3.2.5 Medial arcuate ligaments

Annotations:

  • Over psoas major
16.3.2.6 Median arcuate ligaments

Annotations:

  • over aorta
16.3.3 Hiatuses
16.3.3.1 Vena Cava

Annotations:

  • T8
16.3.3.2 Oesophagus

Annotations:

  • T10
16.3.3.3 Aorta

Annotations:

  • T12
16.4 Serratus anterior

Annotations:

  • Origins: Anterior surface of ribs 1-8/9 Insertion: Anterior surface of medial border of scapula Innervation: Long thoracic nerve (C5-C7)
16.5 Latissimus dorsi

Annotations:

  • Origins: spinous processes of T6-L5+sacrum, iliac crest, ribs 10-12 Insertions: intertubercular sulcus of humerus Innervation: C6-C8
16.6 Intercostals
16.6.1 External

Annotations:

  • \\// used in inspiration
16.6.2 Internal

Annotations:

  • //\\ in forced expiration
16.6.2.1 Neurovascular bundle between
16.6.3 Innermost

Annotations:

  • //\\ in forced expiration
16.6.3.1 Neurovascular bundle between
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