Energy from the Nucleus

wamaroo
Mind Map by wamaroo, updated more than 1 year ago
wamaroo
Created by wamaroo about 7 years ago
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Cambridge IGCSE Physics Mind Map on Energy from the Nucleus, created by wamaroo on 05/10/2013.
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Energy from the Nucleus
1 Nuclear Fission
1.1 Is the splitting of an atomic nucleus
1.2 By shooting a neutron at the nucleus of Uranium-235 creates Uranium-236 which is unstable
1.3 To create daughter atoms with spare neutron
2 Nuclear Fusion
2.1 Is the process of forcing two nucli together so they form one larger nucleus.
2.1.1 You use the 2 isotopes of hydrogen to make a helium atom with spare neutrons
3 Nuclear Issues
3.1 The major source of background radiation is radon gas, which seepes through the ground.
3.1.1 This admits alpha particals
3.1.2 Other sorces are
3.1.2.1 X-rays
3.1.2.2 Nuclear wepon testing
3.2 Uranium and plutonium are chemicly removed from used fuel rods from nuclear reacton as they can be used again
3.3 Workers should... To reduce nuclear radiation
3.3.1 Keep as far away as posible from the sourse
3.3.2 Shield themself with lead or concreate
3.3.3 Spend as little time as posible asposed to the sorce
4 The Early universe
4.1 Big Bang 13 billion years ago
4.1.1 At first the univers was a hot glowing ball of radiation
4.1.1.1 As the univers expands, over millions of years, it's tempricher fell
4.1.1.1.1 Uncharged atoms were formed
4.2 Before Galaxies and Stars formed, the universe was a dark cloud of Hydrogen and Helium
4.3 Dust and Gas were pulled together by gravitational atraction to form start
4.3.1 The resulting intensiy heat started off nuclear fusion reactions in the stars so they omited light
4.4 A galexy is a colection of billion stars held together by there own gravity
5 How the chemical elements formed
5.1 Chemical elements are formed by fusion processes in stars
5.2 The process releases large amounts of energy
5.3 Elements hevier than Iorn are only formed in the final staged of the life of a big star. This is because the process requires the input of energy
5.4 All the elements get distabuted through space by the supernova explosion
5.5 The presence of the hevier elements in the sun and inner planets is evidence that they were formes from debris scattered by a supernova.
6 The life History of a Star
6.1 Gravitational forces pull clouds of dust and gas together to form a protostar
6.1.1 The core gets brighter and hotter because other elements start to fuse together
6.1.1.1 Eventually a star runs out of hydrogen nuclei, swells, cools down and turn red
6.2 Stars radiate energy because of hydrogen fusion in the core. This stage can continue for billions of years untill the star runs out of hydrogen nuclei.
6.2.1 The star is stable because the inwards force of gravity is balanced by the outer force of radiation from the core this is called a main sequence star
6.3 What happens next depends on the size
6.3.1 A star Similar size to our sun is a red giant
6.3.1.1 Helium and other light elements fuse to form heavier elements
6.3.1.1.1 Fusion stops and the star will contract to form a white dwarf
6.3.1.1.1.1 Eventually no more light is emmited nad it becomes a black dwarf
6.3.2 star bigger than the Sun will swell to become a supergiant
6.3.2.1 Eventually the star explodes in a supernova. the outher layers are thrown into space and the core is left as a nutron star
6.3.2.1.1 If this is strong enough it will form a black hole
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