fatimah's soft bones

yasmin alkhatib
Mind Map by yasmin alkhatib, updated more than 1 year ago
yasmin alkhatib
Created by yasmin alkhatib over 3 years ago
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Medicine Mind Map on fatimah's soft bones, created by yasmin alkhatib on 03/19/2017.

Resource summary

fatimah's soft bones
1 osteoporosis
1.1 decreased bone strentgh and density
1.2 epidemiology
1.2.1 two times higher in women
1.3 Types
1.3.1 localized
1.3.1.1 in a limb
1.3.2 generalized
1.3.2.1 primary
1.3.2.1.1 senile
1.3.2.1.1.1 eledrly of both sexes
1.3.2.1.2 postmenopausal
1.3.2.2 secondary
1.4 factors
1.4.1 personal
1.4.1.1 Age
1.4.1.2 genetic factors
1.4.2 extnal er
1.4.2.1 diet
1.4.2.2 hormonal staturs
1.4.2.3 physical activity
1.5 risk factors
1.5.1 sedentary life style
1.5.2 corticosteroid use
1.5.3 calcium low
1.5.4 estrogen low
1.5.5 alcohol use
1.6 diagnostic criteria
1.6.1 X-Ray
1.6.1.1 can't be detected until 30% of bone mass is lost
1.6.2 bone density test
1.6.2.1 helps estimate the density of the bones
1.6.2.2 Types
1.6.2.2.1 central DXA
1.6.2.2.2 peripheral DXA
1.6.2.3 scores
1.6.2.3.1 1 and above
1.6.2.3.1.1 normal
1.6.2.3.2 between -1 and -2.5
1.6.2.3.2.1 osteopenia
1.6.2.3.3 -2.5 and below
1.6.2.3.3.1 osteoporosis
1.7 investigations
1.7.1 Thyroid hormone test
1.7.1.1 to check thyroid gland function
1.7.2 blood sugar test
1.7.2.1 to keep track and manage diabetes
1.7.3 CBC
1.7.3.1 evaluate overall health
1.7.4 electrolyte test
1.7.4.1 check for calcium, phosphate levels
1.8 management
1.8.1 non-pharmacological strategy
1.8.1.1 smoking cessation
1.8.1.2 avoid drugs that increase bone loss
1.8.1.3 adequate dietary intake of calcium and vit D
1.8.1.4 weight-bearing exercises
1.8.2 pharmacological strategy
1.8.2.1 biphosphonates
1.8.2.2 denosumb
1.8.2.3 selective estrogen receptor modulators
1.8.2.4 teriparatide
1.8.2.5 calcitonin
1.9 compilcations
2 anatomy of the hip region
2.1 hip bone
2.1.1
2.2 blood supply
2.2.1
2.3 femur
2.3.1
2.4 gluteal region
2.4.1
2.5 hip joint
2.5.1
2.6 physiology
2.6.1 flexion
2.6.2 extension
2.6.3 abduction
2.6.4 adduction
2.6.5 external rotation
2.6.6 internal rotation
3 radiographic features
3.1 decreased bone density
3.2 decreased cortical thickness
3.3 loss of bony trabecula
3.4
4 fractures
4.1 hip fractures
4.1.1 causes
4.1.1.1 falls to hard surface
4.1.1.2 medical conditions
4.1.1.3 obesity
4.1.2 Types
4.1.2.1 subtrochanteric
4.1.2.2 intracapsular
4.1.2.3 intertrochanteric
4.1.3 complications
4.1.3.1 nonunion failure
4.1.3.2 bedsores
4.1.3.3 avascular necrosis
4.1.3.4 pneumonia
4.1.3.5 urinary tract infections
4.1.4 risk factors
4.1.4.1 tobacco and alcohol
4.1.4.2 physical inactivity
4.1.4.3 nutritional problems
4.1.4.4 certain medications
4.1.4.5 chronic medical conditions
4.1.5 management
4.1.5.1 surgery
4.1.5.1.1 internal repair
4.1.5.1.2 partial hip replacement
4.1.5.1.3 total hip replacement
4.1.5.2 rehabilitation
4.1.5.3 medications
4.2 pathological fractures
4.2.1 caused by disease that led to weakness of bones
4.2.2 fragility fractures
4.2.2.1 common sites
4.2.2.1.1 vertebral fractures
4.2.2.1.2 colle's fracture of the wrist
4.2.2.1.3 neck of femur
5 calcium metabolism
5.1
6 phosphorus metabolism
6.1
7 Vit D metabolism
7.1
8 clinical examination
8.1 look
8.2 feel
8.3 move
8.4 special tests
8.4.1 thomas's test
8.4.2 trendelenberg test
9 estrogen replacement therapy
9.1 HRT
9.2 given to postmenopausal women
9.2.1 moderate to severe hot flashes
9.2.2 lost bone mass
9.2.3 menopause before age
9.3 adverse effects
9.3.1 bloating
9.3.2 breast swelling
9.3.3 vaginal bleeding
9.3.4 mood changes
10 BMI
10.1
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