IB Economics SL: Macroeconomics

Han Zhang
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Some key points in macroeconomics

Han Zhang
Created by Han Zhang over 5 years ago
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1 Measuring National Income
1.1 National Income = National output = National Expenditure
1.1.1 Methods Income Sum of payments to factors of production Output Sum of value of final output produced by various industries Expernditure GDP = Consumption + Investment + Government spending + Net expeort
1.1.2 GDP Total value of output produced in an economy in a given time period GNI = GDP + Net income from abroad NNI = GNI - depreciation (capital consumption) Real GDP/GNI = nominal GDP/GNI - inflation GDP/GNI per capital (divide by population) Green GDP = GDP - environmental costs of production Doesn't take into account: spillover effects, degradation, black market, improvement in quality
1.2 Circular Flow of Income
1.2.1 An interaction between Households, Government and Firms
1.2.2 Injections (J) Government Expenditure, Investment, Export
1.2.3 Withdrawals (W) Taxation, Saving, Import
1.2.4 Equilibrium J = W
1.3 Business Cycle Model
1.3.1 A pattern of Growth Boom (extended period) High inflation, Shortage of resources, Rising property values Recession (2 quarters) Unemployment, Falling consumption and investment, Business failures Trough (Minimum GDP) Long term unemployment Recovery (Growth post-recession) Increasing consumption, employment, investment and inflation Boom = +ve output gap Trough = -ve output gap
2 Macroeconomic Models
2.1 AD/AS Analysis
2.1.1 Equilibrium AD = AS
2.1.2 AD Total demand for an economy's goods and services AD= Consumption + Investment + Govern Expenditure + Net Export Changes in those will cause a shift in AD Consumption Consumer Confidence Interest rates, Wealth Income taxes, Debts Investment Interest rates, Taxes on profits and investment, Business confidence , Corporate debt Government spending Political and economic priorities Net Export Exchange rates, Protectionism, Income levels of trading partners Fiscal and Monetary policies Change in Tax and Interest Rates influences AD
2.1.3 AS Total value of goods and services that an economy can produce in a give time period Short Run AS Shifts Variable costs, Taxation and Subsidies, Labor costs, Supply-side shocks Long Run AS Shifts Productivity/ Efficiency, Technology, Institution Keynsian Different levels of spare capacity in an economy Shifts when improvement in quantity and/or quality At high spare capacity, deflationary gap exists At low spare capacity, "bottleneck" appears, At full capacity, increase in AD is inflationary Demand side then supply side policies Monetarist/ Neo Classical Always at fully capacity (vertical line) Shift when change in quantity and quality, not price level Short-term changes in AD will be counteracted in long-term Supply side policy
2.1.4 Keynsian/ Monetarist debate Keynesian Market are slow to adjust, economy can be at equilibrium below max employment, Government should intervene, fiscal > monetary Monetarist Markets work, Economies tend to full employment, Inflation is caused by excess money supply, minimum government intervention
3 Supply/ Demand side policies
3.1 Demand side
3.1.1 Fiscal the use of government spending and taxation to influence AD, raise revenue, redistribute income and influence consumption patterns Government budget Budget deficit Govern.Spending > Tax Budget surplus Govern.Spending < Tax National Debt Accumulation of past deficits G Expenditure Payments, Investments, Social benefits G Revenue Direct and Indirect Taxes, Privatized national industries Automatic Stabilizers GDP grows, Budget surplus GDP falls, Budget deficit Stabilize Short term fluctuation Strength/ Weaknesses Strengths Targetable Direct impact on AD Role in recession Weaknesses Time lag Crowding out Lack of fund for private sector Political influence Inflexible LRAS* effects Favorable environment for businesses and employment, government spends on infrastructure -> potential output
3.1.2 Monetary the use of the rate of interest predominatnly to influence AD (Money supply control and exchange rate) Money supply affects interest rates The role of the central bank Banker to the government Regulate commercial banking system Manage government's borrowing via bonds Set interest rates for macro objectives Manage supply of money via nominal interest Manage foreign currency resereves Inflation targeting Focus on rate of inflation Symmetric/ Asymmetric Using interest rates Strength/ Weaknesses Strengths Independence of central banks - no political influence Relative speed of change, faster than fiscal Weaknesses Investment can be interest-inelastic Time lags One policy fits all Ineffective against cost-push inflation Ineffective during recession, due to low confidence
3.2 Supply side
3.2.1 Interventionist-based Investments in human capital new technology Infrastructure Industrial policies Could be ineffective on ELDC due to government deficit
3.2.2 Market-based Deregulation, privatization and encouraging competitition Labor market reforms Incentives to work and invest (firms) However, could increase monopoly power for firms Reduction in health and safety for workers
4 Economic Growth
4.1 an increase in real GDP over a given time period
4.2 Actual Growth
4.2.1 Below full employemnt
4.3 Potential Growth
4.3.1 Long-term trend growth
4.4 Consequences
4.4.1 Benefits Per capital income growth Higher living standards higher tax revenue Employment rise Easier to redistrubute income
4.4.2 Drawbacks Inflation Externalities of resource depletion Increase import and current deficit Unequal ditribution of income Unbalanced growth if focused only on consuption
5 Unemployment and Inflation
5.1 Unemployment
5.1.1 Unemployed The people who are registered as willing, able and available for work at the market-clearing wage, but who are unable to find work
5.1.2 Unemployment Rate the number of people unemployed as a percentage of the labor force
5.1.3 Underemployment when workers who want full-time jobs are only able to find part-time jobs. Low wages and output per worker are reflections of work with low rates of productivity
5.1.4 Hidden Unemployment the part of the working population excluded fro any measure of unemployment because of the definition of unemployment used
5.1.5 Measure of Unemployment No consider of regional, gender , age and ethnic variations and disparities
5.1.6 Costs of Unemployment Loss of output Waste of productive potential Loss of skills Loss of tax revenue -> social benefits Social problems Loss of consumer spending Increased income disparity
5.1.7 Types of Unemployment Cyclical(Demand deficit) Recession Wages Stick Downward! Frictional Give incentive for work, reduction in unemployment benefits Seasonal Structural a mismatch between skills and opportunities caused by technological change, a fall in demand for a particular job/ change in taste Solution: Education, Training(apprenticeships and relocation of labor
5.1.8 Natural Rate of Unemployment any unemployment that exists when the AD for labor = AS for labor Solution: Supply side policies, due no demand deficits, AS vertical
5.2 Inflation
5.2.1 a sustained price rise over period of time
5.2.2 Types of Inflation Cost-push Rising raw materials/labor costs or/and indirect tax Demand side: ineffective, Supply side: only works in LR Demand-pull Reduced tax, interest rates, exchange rate; Increase in govern.spending, consumer confidence, economic growth
5.2.3 Measure of Inflation PPI CPI A basket of factors of production (PPI)/ consumed goods (CPI) Measure change based on 100 Drawbacks: Not considered regional, income group, new products changes and disparities
5.2.4 Disinflation (fall in rate of inflation)
5.2.5 Core inflation (excludes the impacts of volatile prices)
5.2.6 Consequences Redistribution of income Devaluation of money/ low purchasing power Reduction of investment Reduction of international competitiveness A potential wage-price spiral Shoe-leather and menu costs Shoe-leather: opportunity costs of consumer counter acting inflation Menu costs: Additional costs to firms in changing the prices Anticipated: less fluctuation Unanticipated: protection of own interest resulting in reduction in economic growth
5.2.7 Cures of inflation Demand side Monetary Increase in interest rate Fiscal Reducing g. spending, increase taxation Supply side Increase supply Evaluation Balance in AD & AS, Control Inflation while increasing economy's productive capacity Increase output at low cost give the economy room to grow without inflation Extreme cases Deflation a constant fall in prices over a given time period Demand-side Recession, fall in everything, dangerous Solution: increase in AD Supply-side (Desirable) Lower Commodity prices Productivity gain, competitive wages and lower tax
6 Distribution of Income
6.1 Measuring D of I
6.1.1 Lorenz Curve Gini Coefficient (Degree of inequality) shows the proportion of a nation's income that is earned by given % of the population
6.2 Government tax and benefit system
6.2.1 Transfer of payment (tax to unemployment benefits)
6.2.2 Type of tax Progressive (Rate increase as income increase) Direct tax (taxes on income and wealth paid by authorities) Regressive (Rate decreases as income increases) Indirect tax (taxes on spending that are paid by suppliers, oppose to consumers) Proportional (avg. rate is constant)
6.2.3 Promoting of health care/education
6.2.4 Direct provision of clean water and sanitation
6.3 Poverty
6.3.1 Poverty line Below: Absolute poverty Compared to median income: Relative poverty
6.3.2 Consequences Social problems, Lack of access to education and health care, low living standards
6.3.3 Causes Low incomes, employment, unequal distribution of resources, poverty cycle

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