Unit 2 Coasts

John Ditchburn
Mind Map by John Ditchburn, updated more than 1 year ago
John Ditchburn
Created by John Ditchburn about 6 years ago
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Edexcel AS Coasts
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Unit 2 Coasts
1 Competition for Coasts
1.1 Coastal diversity
1.1.1 Physical processes
1.1.1.1 Land
1.1.1.1.1 Shape of coast
1.1.1.1.2 Relief
1.1.1.1.3 Beach
1.1.1.1.4 Structure
1.1.1.1.5 Resistance of rocks
1.1.1.1.6 Sub-aerial
1.1.1.1.7 River sediments
1.1.1.1.8 Coastal ecosystems
1.1.1.2 Sea (marine)
1.1.1.2.1 Coastal ecosystems
1.1.1.2.2 Wave energy & direction
1.1.1.2.3 Size and type of wave
1.1.1.2.4 Local currents & longshore drift
1.1.1.2.5 Tidal changes
1.1.1.2.6 Water depth
1.1.1.2.7 Offshore sediments
1.1.1.2.8 Sea level changes
1.1.1.3 Weather and Climate
1.1.1.3.1 Wind strength & direction
1.1.1.3.2 Rainfall and temperature
1.1.1.3.3 Storms and surges
1.1.2 Human activities
1.1.2.1 Changes to natural systems
1.1.2.2 Use of land for development
1.1.2.3 Exploitation of resources
1.2 Coastal zone
1.2.1 Processes and Landforms (from GCSE)
1.3 Coastal attractions
1.3.1 Natural resources
1.3.1.1 Coastal ecosystems
1.3.1.1.1 Goods for survival
1.3.1.1.1.1 e.g. meat, fish, building materials
1.3.1.1.2 Services for survival
1.3.1.1.2.1 e.g. flood protection, cycling of nutrients
1.3.1.2 Minerals and landscape
1.4 Human development
1.4.1 Growth of ports
1.4.1.1 Communications services
1.4.2 Growth of resorts
1.4.2.1 Land use model
1.5 Case studies
1.5.1 Lancashire Coastal Plain
1.5.2 Bournemouth, Boscombe
1.5.3 Some of: Blackpool, Benidorm, Australia, Florida
2 Pressure on Coasts
2.1 Development of coast
2.1.1 Competing and conflicting uses
2.1.1.1 Case studies
2.1.1.1.1 Dorset, Lyme Bay (PA.221)
2.1.1.1.2 Jurassic Coast (high value)
2.1.1.1.2.1 Lulworth
2.1.1.1.2.2 Studland
2.2 Natural Coastal Environments
2.2.1 Coral reefs
2.2.2 Mangroves
2.2.3 Salt marshes
2.2.4 Land reclamation
2.2.4.1 Tokyo Bay
2.2.4.2 Dubai
2.3 Economic Development
2.3.1 Case studies
2.3.1.1 Southampton Water
2.3.1.1.1 Dibden Bay
3 Coasts at Risk
3.1 Tsunamis
3.1.1 Asian 2004
3.1.2 Japan Tohoku 2011
3.2 Coastal Erosion
3.2.1 Case studies
3.2.1.1 Barton-on-Sea
3.2.1.1.1 Rapid erosion due to
3.2.1.1.1.1 Rock type & structure
3.2.1.1.1.2 Sediment loss/supply
3.2.1.1.1.3 Pressure of development
3.2.1.1.1.4 Wave fetch & direction
3.2.1.1.1.5 Human intervention in natural systems
3.2.1.2 Holderness
3.2.1.2.1 Rapid erosion due to
3.2.1.2.1.1 Rock type & structure
3.2.1.2.1.2 Longshore drift
3.2.1.2.1.3 Wave fetch & direction
3.2.1.2.1.4 Human intervention in natural systems
3.3 Coastal Flooding
3.3.1 Case studies
3.3.1.1 East Coast of UK
3.3.1.2 Thames Gateway
3.3.1.3 Venice/Cotonou (sea level rise)
3.3.1.4 Other examples
4 Coastal management
4.1 Hard engineering methods
4.1.1 Groynes
4.1.2 Sea walls
4.1.3 Gabions
4.1.4 Rip rap
4.1.5 Cliff fixing
4.1.6 Rock armour
4.1.7 Cliff drainage
4.1.8 Cliff regrading
4.2 Soft engineering methods
4.2.1 Beach nourishment
4.2.2 Beach re-profiling
4.2.3 Dune regeneration
4.2.4 Natural defences (mangroves)
4.2.5 Offshore reefs
4.3 Strategies
4.3.1 Hold the line
4.3.1.1 Case studies
4.3.1.1.1 Blackpool
4.3.1.1.2 Barton-on-Sea
4.3.1.1.2.1 Many methods in one location
4.3.1.1.3 Holderness
4.3.1.1.3.1 Range of strategies along a coastline
4.3.2 Retreat the line
4.3.2.1 Abbotts Hall Farm, Essex
4.3.2.2 Porlock, Devon
4.3.3 Advance the line
4.3.3.1 Tokyo Bay, Dubai
4.4 Do nothing
4.4.1 Parts of Holderness Coast - farmland
4.5 Sustainable future management
4.5.1 Shoreline Management Plans
4.5.2 Integrated Coastal Zone Management
4.5.3 Sustainable strategies
4.6 Managing high value coastlines
4.6.1 Jurassic Coast
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