Unit 2 Coasts

John Ditchburn
Mind Map by John Ditchburn, updated more than 1 year ago
John Ditchburn
Created by John Ditchburn about 6 years ago


Edexcel AS Coasts

Resource summary

Unit 2 Coasts
1 Competition for Coasts
1.1 Coastal diversity
1.1.1 Physical processes Land Shape of coast Relief Beach Structure Resistance of rocks Sub-aerial River sediments Coastal ecosystems Sea (marine) Coastal ecosystems Wave energy & direction Size and type of wave Local currents & longshore drift Tidal changes Water depth Offshore sediments Sea level changes Weather and Climate Wind strength & direction Rainfall and temperature Storms and surges
1.1.2 Human activities Changes to natural systems Use of land for development Exploitation of resources
1.2 Coastal zone
1.2.1 Processes and Landforms (from GCSE)
1.3 Coastal attractions
1.3.1 Natural resources Coastal ecosystems Goods for survival e.g. meat, fish, building materials Services for survival e.g. flood protection, cycling of nutrients Minerals and landscape
1.4 Human development
1.4.1 Growth of ports Communications services
1.4.2 Growth of resorts Land use model
1.5 Case studies
1.5.1 Lancashire Coastal Plain
1.5.2 Bournemouth, Boscombe
1.5.3 Some of: Blackpool, Benidorm, Australia, Florida
2 Pressure on Coasts
2.1 Development of coast
2.1.1 Competing and conflicting uses Case studies Dorset, Lyme Bay (PA.221) Jurassic Coast (high value) Lulworth Studland
2.2 Natural Coastal Environments
2.2.1 Coral reefs
2.2.2 Mangroves
2.2.3 Salt marshes
2.2.4 Land reclamation Tokyo Bay Dubai
2.3 Economic Development
2.3.1 Case studies Southampton Water Dibden Bay
3 Coasts at Risk
3.1 Tsunamis
3.1.1 Asian 2004
3.1.2 Japan Tohoku 2011
3.2 Coastal Erosion
3.2.1 Case studies Barton-on-Sea Rapid erosion due to Rock type & structure Sediment loss/supply Pressure of development Wave fetch & direction Human intervention in natural systems Holderness Rapid erosion due to Rock type & structure Longshore drift Wave fetch & direction Human intervention in natural systems
3.3 Coastal Flooding
3.3.1 Case studies East Coast of UK Thames Gateway Venice/Cotonou (sea level rise) Other examples
4 Coastal management
4.1 Hard engineering methods
4.1.1 Groynes
4.1.2 Sea walls
4.1.3 Gabions
4.1.4 Rip rap
4.1.5 Cliff fixing
4.1.6 Rock armour
4.1.7 Cliff drainage
4.1.8 Cliff regrading
4.2 Soft engineering methods
4.2.1 Beach nourishment
4.2.2 Beach re-profiling
4.2.3 Dune regeneration
4.2.4 Natural defences (mangroves)
4.2.5 Offshore reefs
4.3 Strategies
4.3.1 Hold the line Case studies Blackpool Barton-on-Sea Many methods in one location Holderness Range of strategies along a coastline
4.3.2 Retreat the line Abbotts Hall Farm, Essex Porlock, Devon
4.3.3 Advance the line Tokyo Bay, Dubai
4.4 Do nothing
4.4.1 Parts of Holderness Coast - farmland
4.5 Sustainable future management
4.5.1 Shoreline Management Plans
4.5.2 Integrated Coastal Zone Management
4.5.3 Sustainable strategies
4.6 Managing high value coastlines
4.6.1 Jurassic Coast
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