Economic geography GSCE Edexcel unit 1

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Created by overmymarshmallow almost 6 years ago


A mind map to assist revision for GSCE level geography students,

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Economic geography GSCE Edexcel unit 1
1 employment categories
1.1 Primary- the extraction of raw materials from the ground or sea, eg mining farming
1.2 Secondary- the manufacturing of the goods using the raw materials from primary industry
1.3 Tertiary-doesn't produce anything but provides services eg lawyers or cleaners
2 comparisons of developement
2.1 Lics- have a high amount of people employed in primary industry, early stage of development and most still work the land as farmers
2.2 Hics- have more people employed in tertiary employment, with up to 70% working in this sector in more developed countries
2.3 Nics- newly developed countries such as taiwan, have developed quickly due to a influx of major companies who invest in manufacturing in the country eg HTC
3 Reasons for decline in primary employment in the uk
3.1 Depletion of resources
3.1.1 The mining industry has declined because raw materials have been used up in the UK
3.1.2 This is reflected in the work force, in 1913 there were 1 million mining jobs, now there are just 5,500
3.2 cheap imports
3.2.1 Port talbot steel works in south wales gets is iron ore from norway and its coal from russia
3.2.2 Both of these resources used to be mined in south wales
3.3 Mechanisation
3.3.1 Agriculutural machinery has changed over the last 30 year, it is now possible for one man to plough 100 hectares in a day
3.3.2 Mechanisation decreases the need for workers in moderen day the jobs once carried out by men are done quicker with powered machinery,
3.4 Social change
3.4.1 There as been a major change in attitude towards primary jobs, they are often viewed as dirty and physically demanding
3.4.2 Tertiary jobs also tend to be located in urban areas with better facilities
4 Reasons for decline in secondary employment UK
4.1 Cheaper production in LICS and MICS
4.1.1 Many manufacturing companies have relocated to countries where production costs are low The reason for this are cheap labour, lack of rules and regulations in the production process and often grants from the government
4.2 Globalisation
4.2.1 The growing accesibility of the world The developement of new communication technology, such as video conferencing and emails
4.2.2 Firms can now be located internationally but keep in touch with producers easily
4.2.3 This developement is not just aircraft but better motorways across europe
4.3 Although this has resulted in high levels of unemployment in the UK
4.3.1 In the 80's unemployment rose by 10.8%, and 40% of birminghams population was employed in manufacturing by 2006 just 20%
5 Reasons for growth of china's secondary industry
5.1 Physical factors
5.1.1 Raw materials China has a wealth of natural resources such as coal, oil and natural gas These are used to fuel the industrial development of the country
5.1.2 Location China is on major trade routes, these are routes large freight take around the world it is also close to the developing south korea, india and taiwan
5.2 human factors
5.2.1 Education china trians 600,000 new engineers each year literacy levels have risen with 90% now reading and writing
5.2.2 work force it is estimated 500 million people will leave the chinese coutry side in search of work in the next 20 years it is estimated the unemployment rate of china is 25% this is resulted in them being the lowest paid job in the world
5.2.3 government policy for many years all manufacturing was owned by the government now 20% are privately owned and the number grows
5.2.4 infrastructure improvements the government has built many new roads and allowed the building of new factories
5.2.5 globalistaion Enabled companies in HICS to have goods assembled in LICS at a fraction of the cost
5.2.6 energy since the 90's China has been developing its energy base with new hydroelectric and nuclear power stations
5.2.7 private entreprise many foreign companies now have factories in china eg in xiamen city the taiwanese company EUPA have a factory making coffee machines which employs 23000 workers Chinese factory workers earn about 40p/hour which means factory owners can invest money in the business rather than payin a fair wage
6 Effects of growth in China
6.1 Economic
6.1.1 over the last 20 years it has become the fourth largest economy in the world, and the second largest manufacturer of goods
6.1.2 GNP has risen $620 in 1995 to $1700 by 2005
6.1.3 there has been unprecedented growth in the last 20 years,
6.2 social
6.2.1 the awful state of the atmosphere of china has led to an increase in the number of illnesses such as lung cancer
6.2.2 spending on health is now larger than in the 1980's
6.2.3 there are few laws to protect migrant workers. they are excluded from health care and state education and live in appaling over crowded conditions
6.2.4 money has been spent on education and china produce well educated students. however they learn independently with 80 students to a class they are lectuerd at by a teacher
6.2.5 there is now a rift between the public and the police due to anger about pollution
6.3 enviromental
6.3.1 80% of rivers are below standards for fishing and 90% of water supplies in cities are polluted
6.3.2 75% of china's energy is still produced from coal. research suggests 16 of the world's most polluted cities are in china.
6.3.3 the government has recognized the problem and has set itself targets to increase renewable energy and spend over $200 billion over the nextt 10 years to reduce the problems.
7 Reasons for the uks' growth in tertiary industry
7.1 a rise in demand
7.1.1 people have a larger disposable income now, so things like gym membership has become more popular. in 2000 4 million had a gym membership, this increases each year by approx 12%
7.2 New technology
7.2.1 in 2006 350,000 people were employed in call centres, by 2008 it was 950,00
7.2.2 people now shop and bank online which has led to an increase in IT jobs
7.3 demographicchanges
7.3.1 people are marrying later and having fewer children this has led to a growing number of services to suit them such as coffee shops and bars
7.3.2 the greying pound mean the elderly have more time and money for leisure, so companies like saga have created things marketed for this audience
8 Factors affecting the location of industry
8.1 labour supply
8.2 accesibilty
8.3 raw materials
8.4 power supply
8.5 distance to market
8.6 government incentive
9 china clay extraction
9.1 Kaolin is only found in the south west of england
9.2 the china was moved by tram way and train to ports of charleston, pentewan and par on the south east coast
9.3 ships took it to liverpool, then along the trent and mersey canal via barge to winsford in chesire. the final 30 miles to stoke on trent
9.4 most of the production was now used by the paper industry, 75% was exported
9.5 the raw material is still transported by train and 50% is moved by rail to par and fowey ports.
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