Misleading information: Loftus et al. (1978)

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Mind Map by moeingthelawn, updated more than 1 year ago
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A-Levels Psychology A-Level AQA A (Unit 1 Memory) Mind Map on Misleading information: Loftus et al. (1978), created by moeingthelawn on 08/05/2014.

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Misleading information: Loftus et al. (1978)
1 AIM
1.1 To investigate whether PPs would be able to accurately recall an even if asked misleading questions
2 PROCEDURE
2.1 Two groups of PPs were shown a set of slides showing a car accident
2.1.1 Group 1: Saw a red car stopping by a 'Yield' sign
2.1.1.1 Half were asked about a 'Yield' sign (consistent) whereas the other half were asked about a 'Stop' sign (misleading)
2.1.2 Group 2: Saw a red car stopping by a 'Stop' sign
2.1.2.1 Half were asked about a 'Stop' sign (consistent) and the other half were asked about a 'Yield' sign (misleading)
2.2 PPs were given 15 pairs of slides of the event in random order
2.2.1 Had to pick from each pair the slide that was consistent with what they had seen earlier
2.2.2 One pair consisted of a slide with a 'Yield' sign and the other slide with a 'Stop' sign
3 FINDINGS
3.1 75% of PPs who got the consistent question picked the correct slide
3.2 Only 41% of the PPs who got the misleading question picked the correct slide
3.3 When the recognition slide test was delayed for a week, the accuracy of the group of PPs who got the misleading question fell to 20%
4 CONCLUSION
4.1 Misleading question deleted correct information from memory and replaced it with false information
4.2 Misleading questions mean that original memory is no longer stored
4.3 Effect of misleading questions become more prominent over time
5 EVALUATION
5.1 Supporting study: Loftus & Loftus (1980) - found that accuracy in the group who were given misleading information did not increase even when they were offered money to pick the correct slide
5.2 Not everyone who was given misleading information was inaccurate in the recognition slide task
5.3 The use of static slides does not reflect real-life situations and therefore we cannot base EWT on the conclusions
6 Source misattribution
6.1 Misleading questions may cause a problem with source monitoring, meaning that when individuals are presented with two different/conflicting information they will mix up where each information came from
7 BEKERIAN and BOWERS (1983)
7.1 Original memory trace is still available and has not been deleted and replaced by false memory
7.2 Replicated Loftus' study with the 'Stop' and 'Yield' sign
7.3 However, during the recognition slide test, PPs were presented with the slides in chronological order
7.4 Found that there was not a significant difference between the recall accuracy of the misled PPs and the consistent PPs
7.4.1 Presenting the slides in a chronological sequence provided cues for the PPs to reactivate the original memory despite the misleading information
7.5 Other researchers have failed to replicate the results
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