Cold Environments: Fluvioglacial Processes and Landforms


A Levels Geography (Physical Geography-AS) Mind Map on Cold Environments: Fluvioglacial Processes and Landforms, created by Andrew_Ellinas on 05/09/2014.
Mind Map by Andrew_Ellinas, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Andrew_Ellinas about 10 years ago

Resource summary

Cold Environments: Fluvioglacial Processes and Landforms
  1. The Importance of Meltwater
    1. Melting snow helps to enlarge the shallow nivation hollows that eventually become corries when the snow turns to ice
      1. Helps to lubricate the base of the glacier.
        1. Transports moraine beneath the ice, where it provides tools for glacial erosion
          1. When freezes, can help with plucking.
            1. Erode channels and form distinctive depositional features - both in front of and beneath the ice.
            2. Fluvioglacial Landforms: Meltwater Related Features
              1. Meltwater Channels
                1. Takes the form of a steep-sided , often dry, valley carved into the landscape
                  1. Most commonly results from the overspill of a lake that builds up next to or in front of a glacier
                  2. Eskers
                    1. Long ridges of sand and gravel. They can be up to 30 meters high and usually take the form of meandering hills-often stretching for several kilometres-that run roughly parallel to the valley sides.
                      1. Meandering shape suggests they were formed by subglacial river deposition during the final stages of a glacial period
                      2. Kames
                        1. Kame Terrace: Most extensive type of kame. Results from the infilling or a marginal glacial lake. When the ice finally melts, the kame terrace is abandoned as a ridge on the valley side.
                          1. Kame Delta: A smaller feature that forms when a stream deposits material on entering a marginal lake. Small mound-like hills, and can be identified by their deltaic sedimentation characteristics.
                            1. Crevasse Kame: Some kames arise from the flucial deposition of sediments in surface crevasses. When ice melts, they are deposited on the valley floor to form small hummocks
                            2. Outwash Plain
                              1. A gentle sloping area of sands and gravels that forms in front of the glacier.
                                1. Results from the 'outwash' of sediment carried by meltwater streams and rivers.
                                  1. At the end of a glacial period, huge quantities of sediment will be spread out over the outwash plain by great torrents of meltwater.
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