Advanced English II

cristinaruizald
Mind Map by , created about 5 years ago

Mind Map on Advanced English II, created by cristinaruizald on 05/11/2014.

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cristinaruizald
Created by cristinaruizald about 5 years ago
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Advanced English II
1 Modals and related Verbs
1.1 do not take "-s" in the third person.
1.2 use "not" to make modal verbs negative
1.3 Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past or the future tenses
1.4 Can/Could
1.5 May/Might
1.6 Ought to
1.7 Shall/Should
1.8 Will/would
2 Mdals in the past
2.1 Can't have
2.1.1 Certainty
2.2 Could
2.2.1 Permision
2.2.2 General ability
2.3 Could have
2.3.1 Possibility
2.4 Didn't need to
2.4.1 Unecessary action not done
2.5 Had to
2.5.1 Obligation
2.6 May have
2.6.1 Uncertainty
2.7 Might have
2.7.1 Possibility
2.7.2 Uncertainly
2.8 Must have
2.8.1 Certainly
2.9 Needn´t have
2.9.1 unnecessary actionj that was done
2.10 Ought to have
2.10.1 Criticism
2.11 Should Have
2.11.1 Expectation
2.12 Would have
2.12.1 events in the past that never happened
3 Habits
3.1 Be used to
3.1.1 indicates that someone has adapted to a new situation.
3.2 Get used to
3.2.1 the process of something becoming normal for us
3.3 for something that happened regularly in the past but no longer happens
4 Relative Clauses
4.1 We use them to join two sentences or more information about something
4.2 Defining
4.2.1 tell us which noun we are talking about
4.2.1.1 I like the woman who lives next door
4.2.2 "Who" for people
4.2.3 "Which" for things
4.2.4 "That" for things/people
4.3 Non-defining
4.3.1 Gives extra info. we do not need to understand the sentence
4.3.1.1 I live in London, which has some fantastic parks
4.3.2 We use "who" "which"
4.3.3 Do not use "that"
5 Clauses and Phrases
5.1 Phrase
5.1.1 Has nouns or verbals
5.1.2 Does not have a subject performing an action (Verb)
5.1.2.1 Before the first test
5.1.2.2 After the devastation
5.2 Clause
5.2.1 Collection of words that has a subject performing an action
5.2.1.1 because she smiled at me
5.2.1.2 Since he is here
5.2.2 Independent
5.2.2.1 Sentence that stands by itself
5.2.3 Dependent
5.2.3.1 Sentence that doe not stand by itself
5.2.3.1.1 Dependent marker
6 Habits II
6.1 Used to
6.1.1 is used for past action that we no longer perform
6.1.1.1 Can be used with all the verbs
6.2 Would
6.2.1 is used for past action that we no longer perform
6.2.1.1 Is ONLY used when the action involves movement
7 Cause, Purpouse and effect
7.1 Cause
7.1.1 Why something happens
7.2 Purpose
7.2.1 Goal you pretend to achieve
7.3 Effect
7.3.1 What happens
8 The verb "get"
8.1 Get across
8.1.1 To communicate
8.2 Get along/ Get on with
8.2.1 Have a good relationship
8.3 Get around
8.3.1 To avoid or spread somehing
8.4 Get at
8.4.1 To reach or suggest something idirectly
8.5 Get away
8.5.1 Ecape or obtain something
8.6 Get down
8.6.1 Cause someone to be depressed
8.7 Get down to
8.7.1 finally do something seriously. Reaching the point of dealing with it
8.8 Get over
8.8.1 To overcome something
9 Opposition and contrast
9.1 Opposition
9.1.1 When two ideas are opposite
9.1.1.1 Black-White
9.2 Contrast
9.2.1 When two ideas are not opposite but different
9.2.1.1 Red-Blue
10 Present Habits
10.1 Actions that are repeted regulary over a long period of time
10.1.1 Simple Present
10.1.1.1 Usually uses adverbs of frequency (somehimes, one a week, etc)
10.1.2 Will/won't + infinitive
10.1.2.1 talk about behavoir and tendencies
10.1.3 Keep + verb + -ing
10.1.3.1 talk about repeated behavoir viewed negatively by the speaker
10.2 Annoying habits
10.2.1 Always
10.2.1.1 Is used to complain aabout something

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