Utilitarianism

caryscallan
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Utilitarianism, created by caryscallan on 05/11/2014.

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caryscallan
Created by caryscallan over 5 years ago
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Utilitarianism
1 History
1.1 18th century
1.2 Metaphysical to empirical
1.3 Industrial revolution
1.4 Age of enlightenment
1.5 Huge social divide between the rich and poor
1.5.1 "The rich man in his castle, The poor man at his gate, God made them high and lowly, And ordered their estate" - All Things Bright and Beautiful
1.6 Religious to secular
2 Nature
2.1 Consequential
2.2 Teleological
2.2.1 "This neighbour will have to answer for the consequences of his terrible deed"
2.3 Subjective
2.4 Actions have only instrumental value
3 Rule utility
3.1 J.S Mill
3.1.1 Bentham's comfortable life means he can't judge what is important to humans
3.1.1.1 Bentham made an error assessing what humans desire
3.1.1.1.1 ""humans are not governed in all their actions by their worldly interests"
3.1.2 Humans should meet their full potential
3.1.2.1 It is better to be a man dissatisfied than a pig satisfied. Few humans would consent to be changed into any of the lower animals for a promise of the beast's fullest pleasure"
3.1.3 Happiness can't be quantified
3.2 Good = happiness
3.2.1 Higher and lower pleasures
3.2.1.1 "competently acquainted"
3.3 Rules if followed would lead to the greatest happiness
3.3.1 Strong rule
3.3.1.1 More deontological
3.3.1.1.1 Rules have instrumental value
3.3.2 Weak rule
3.3.2.1 More teleological
3.3.2.1.1 Better to allow for exceptions
4 Act utility
4.1 Jeremy Bentham
4.2 Joseph Priestley "the greatest good for the greatest number"
4.3 Met the needs of the working class
4.4 Reforms
4.4.1 Abolition of slavery
4.4.2 Reform Bill & Factory Acts concerning hours and conditions in the industry
4.4.3 Postal system
4.5 Good = pleasure
4.5.1 2 sovereign masters, pleasure and pain
4.6 "Utilitarianism..a standard for judging public action" Robert E Goodwin
4.7 Rejection of a God ordained state
4.8 Hedonic calculus
4.8.1 Intensity, Duration,Certainty,Propinquity,Fecundity, Purity, Extent
4.8.2 I don't care properly for philosophy & ethics
4.8.3 How deep it is, how long it lasts, how sure it is, how close it is, how fruitful it is, how free from pain & how far the effects stretch
4.8.4 Ski trip woman - Peter Vardy
5 Modern developments
5.1 Harm principle
5.1.1 People can act how they want as long as it doesn't cause pain to others
5.1.1.1 You have freedom of speech, but don't use the speech to hurt someone
5.1.2 J.S Mill
5.2 Preference utility
5.2.1 Doing what the individual prefers to do
5.2.1.1 "Joan of Arc..was experiencing pain for the sake of something she valued more highly than pleasure" - Horner & Westacott
5.2.2 R.M Hare
5.2.3 Peter Singer wanted to minimise suffering and felt minorities were important
5.3 Negative utility
5.3.1 Promoting the least amount of harm and pain
5.3.1.1 Destroying the world is plausible for avoiding a pinprick
5.3.2 Karl Popper
6 Strengths
6.1 Pleasure can be calculated to choose the best option
6.2 Helps the greatest number of people
6.3 Flexibility allows for every situation
6.4 Its developed to suit each era
6.5 Agrees that harm is intrinsically wrong
6.6 People intend to do what's best
6.7 Doesn't need to rely on religion
6.8 Anyone can use it
6.9 Its democratic as it balances everyone's interests
6.10 Is universal so can be used in any culture
7 Weaknesses
7.1 Utility requires an impersonal view, this can't be achieved with prima facie relationships
7.2 Hedonic calculus isn't practical, it takes too long
7.3 Pleasure cannot be quantified
7.4 Flexibility allows for a margin of evil
7.5 Minority are exploited
7.6 Pygmalion was a play about educating a flower girl to experience higher pleasures, not optimistic
7.7 The future can't be predicted so its unpredictable
7.8 Knowing you can predict the greater good doesn't mean you will eg money to developing countries
7.9 It's subjective to people's pleasure and preference
7.10 Majority tyranny can stop good things eg homosexuality

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