Arguments against the Existence of God

Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A Levels Philosophy Mind Map on Arguments against the Existence of God, created by 2007hallam on 05/12/2014.

Created by 2007hallam over 5 years ago
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Arguments against the Existence of God
1 Projection Atheism
1.1 Religion is created by man to fulfil a human desire or purpose
2 Materialism
2.1 Nothing exists but the empirical world
3 Psycological Critiques
3.1 Freud
3.1.1 Religion is just a way to overcome inner conflict


  • famous examples of this include the primal horde theory and Oedipus compex)   
3.1.2 Need for a father figure
3.1.3 Religion was necessary for developing world, to restrain violent impulses. In modern society, this can be put away for reason and science
3.2 Carl Jung
3.2.1 The 'collective unconcious' of humanity projects the 'archetype' of Hero - in the form of an anthropomorphisesed God
4 Sociological Critiques
4.1 Marx
4.1.1 Religion must be abolished as the illusory happiness of people so that a true happiness can be realised. Men will then control society and thus not be controlled by it
4.1.2 Religion is used to oppress the poor - for example the Divine Order of Being places the rich as closer to God. 'the opium of the people'
4.2 Nietzche
4.2.1 Religion is a way of giving the oppressed strength in face of their oppressors. Christian faith amongst Black groups in America
4.3 Durkheim
4.3.1 [Religion is] a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things…beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a church, all who adhere to them
4.3.2 Life is in tension between the sacred and the profane (everyday)
4.3.3 while religion can be seen as a positive force, it nevertheless is motivated by society and not the religious truths themselves
5 Dawkins
5.1 Religion teaches you to be satisfied with not understanding the world. Religion is about turning untested belief into unshakable truth through the power of institution
5.1.1 Young Earth Creationism as 40% of American belief.
5.2 Faith is the great cop out, the great excuse to evade the need to think and evaluate evidence
5.3 Colorado Hell House - religion is used to suppress and oppress. Anti-gay propaganda and Pro-Life extreamism
6 Evidentialism
6.1 W. K. Clifford "It is wrong, always, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence"
6.2 Antony Flew - The Onus of proof is on the believer to justify their claims, since the purpose of philosophy is knowledge and they are making 'unfalsifiable claims'
6.3 Bertrand Russell's teapot
6.4 Alisdair McGrath - "The capacity of science to explain itself requires an explaination"
6.5 Alvin Plantinga - reformed epistomology, God is a basic belief, which does not need to be inferred. "Belief making tools" of humanity shows we were "made to have a belief"

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