Emotion and Cognition - Cog Psy

becky.waine
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Mind Map on Emotion and Cognition - Cog Psy, created by becky.waine on 05/13/2013.

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becky.waine
Created by becky.waine over 6 years ago
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Emotion and Cognition - Cog Psy
1 COGNITION - mental processes such as attention, memory, language. cold info processing. EMOTION - less easy to define, hot processing
1.1 The mind is seen as an information processor. Input >> Computations >> Output.
2 S.M. experienced seizures, the amygdala an almond-shaped area was severly wasting away, S.M. had a rare autosomaol recessive genetic disorder, URBACH-WIETHE disease which caused an accumulation of glycoprotein calcium in the medial temporal lobe and led to degeneration of the amygdalae
2.1 she had normal cognitive functioning and intelligence scores in the normal range. she accurately identified anger, disgust and surprise but COULD NOT IDENTIFY FEAR. inability to sense fear. she failed to draw fear when asked to as well. therefore the AMYGDALA must play a crucial role in the indetification of facial expressions of fear
2.2 KENNEDY ET AL. - 2009 - H.M. also has a tendency to stand too close to strangers, the amygdala might regulate interpersonal space and interaction, as amydgala activated when people too close in normal subjects
3 BASIC EMOTIONS
3.1 EKMAN AND FRIESEN - 1971 - looked at the universality of facial expressions, how we show happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, anger or surprise are pretty much the same. EKMAN - 1982 - SIX BASIC EMOTIONS
3.1.1 basic emotions such as fear and rage have been confirmed in animals
4 DIFFERENT VIEWS
4.1 JAMES- LANGE THEORY - 1884 - the autonomic arousal comes first, feel afraid because you run away. emotions are interpretations of physiological states like arousal
4.2 GRAY, ROLLS - emotions are related to motivation, rewards and punishers.
4.3 LAZARUS - emotions are the result of conscious or unconscious evaluation of events
4.4 DARWIN - different emotions are basic evolutionary modules for different types of adaptive behaviour
4.5 DAVIDSON - 1990 - different emotional reactions motivate us to APPROACH or WITHDRAW from a situation
5 DIMENSIONS OF EMOTION
5.1 DIMENSIONS OF EMOTION - reactions to events that vary on a continuum. intensities of happiness vary
5.1.1 brain structures linked to emotion are often subcortical and automatic, consistent with evolutionarily 'primitive' functions, WHEREAS COGNITIVE functions are more often liked to cortical regions
5.1.1.1 no strong association with unique brain regions. instead characterise emotions along a continumm - FELDMANN, BARRETT AND RUSSELL - 1998
5.1.1.1.1 OSGOOD ET AL. - 1957 - emotional reactions based on VALENCE (positive or negatibe) and AROUSAL (intensity of emotional response)
5.1.1.1.1.1 INTERNATIONAL AFFECTIVE PICTURE SYSTEM (IAPS) - 2005 - valence and arousal ratings. POSITIVES - 9-point scale for valence and arousal, more fine-grained scales
5.1.1.1.1.1.1 older adults experience less negative affect than the young
5.1.1.2 LINDQUIST ET AL., 2012 - emotions are grounded in core affect, a set of brain regions are constantly activated
6 HOW DOES COGNITION INFLUENCE EMOTION?
6.1 different people react very differently to similar situations
6.2 LAZARUS - 1982 - APPRAISAL THEORY - emotional experience depends on our conscious or unconscious evaluation. appraisals or evaluations take into account how to cope with the situations
6.2.1 SPEISMAN ET AL., - 1964 - can manipulate perceptions of stressful situations in films through soundtrack or background
6.3 CONTROLLING EMOTIONS - GROSS & BARRETT - 2011 - cognitive control over emotion after a breakup
6.4 WAGER ET AL - 2008 - during re-appraisal, as PFC activation increases, amygdala decreases
6.5 THE ARGUMENT THAT COGNITION ALWAYS PRECEDES EMOTION IS IMPOSSIBLE TO PROVE
7 COGNITIVE BIASES IN DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY
7.1 cognitive therapy aims to reduce these cog biases
7.2 EYSENCK AND KEANE - 2010 - ATTENTIONAL BIAS (selective attention to threat stimuli), INTERPRETIVE BIAS (interpret ambiguous stimuli in a threatening way), EXPLICIT MEMORY BIAS (retrieve negative memories) , IMPLICIT MEMORY BIAS (better performance for negative information / memory test)
7.3 BECK - COGNITIVE ACCOUNT OF DEPRESSION - people develop negative self schemas throughout childhood
7.3.1 BECK & CLARK - 1988 - ATTENTIONAL BIAS IN DEPRESSION - increased attention and memory towards negative stimuli
7.4 MacLEOD ET AL - 1986 - DOT-PROBE PARADIGM - participants respond to dot. participants who are depressed selectively attend to the emotional side of the screen than the neutral side
7.5 JOORMAN & GOTTLIEB - 2007 - currently depressed and remitted depressed people have bias towards sad faces
7.6 DE RUBEIS ET AL - 2005 - cognitive therapy is better than placebo, and just as effective as medication in moderate to severe depression
8 MOOD AND COGNITION
8.1 BOWER'S - 1981 - NETWORK THEORY OF EMOTION - emotion is a node in a network of associated semantic concepts
8.1.1 COLLINS AND LOFTUS - 1973 - ACTIVATION SPREADS THROUGHOUT THE NETWORK BETWEEN RELATED CONCEPTS
8.1.1.1 BOWER - 1981 - information is more easily encoded when congruent with current mood, linked with other related information in active network. also retrieved better when congruent with current mood.
8.1.1.1.1 EICH - 1995 - Mood effects on memory are quite small
8.1.1.1.2 BOWER criticised for being too simplistic, that mood is just another semantic concept
9 PROCESSING OF EMOTIONAL INFORMATION
9.1 EMOTIONAL STIMULI automatically attract attention - EMOTIONAL STROOP TASK - McKENNA & SHARMA - 2004 - slower to name the colours of emotional words. emotion effects attention
9.1.1 KENSINGER - 2009 - ACTIVITY AT ENCODING leading to enhanced subsequent memory for emotional stimuli. amygdala and fusiform activity predicted later detailed memory for negative objects. amygdala activity during encoding onlly facilitates memory for emotional information, not all details of an event.
9.1.1.1 VUILLEUMIER - 2004 - AMYGDALA modulates processing in other regions associated with emotional materials
9.2 HANSEN & HANSEN - 1988 - angry face in a crowd of happy faces more easily detected than vice versa.
9.2.1 OHMAN ET AL - 2001 - snake in a crowd of flowers more easily detected than vice versa
9.3 patients without amygdala show normal fMRI responses on faces to houses, but they have no effect of fear expression in visual cortex. amygdala damage have consequences on visual cortex function
9.3.1 emotionally arousing stimuli can be processed even outside of awareness
9.3.1.1 LeDOUX - 1995 - proposed a dual route for processing threatening stimuli - slow and conscious, fast and unconscious
9.3.1.2 KENSINGER - 2009 - we remember emotional events more vividly than neutral events, such as disasters, injuries, war etc.
9.3.1.3 WILLIAM JAMES - 1980 - events so emotional as to leave a scar upon the cerebral tissues
9.3.1.3.1 emotional memories subject to distortions
9.3.1.4 LOFTUS ET AL - 1987 - WEAPONS FOCUS EFFECT - fail to recognise perpetrator but remember the weapon. pay more attention to emotional stimuli and attention is necessary for encoding of conscious episodic memories . emotional details last longer in storage
9.3.1.4.1 KENSINGER - 2009 - supports the weapon's focus effect, pay more attention to emotion, so enhanced encoding of this infornmation
10 CONCLUSIONS - interrelationship between behavioural and brain studies

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