Cell division, diversity and organisation

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Biology (F211) Mind Map on Cell division, diversity and organisation, created by Nikita96 on 05/14/2013.

Created by Nikita96 over 6 years ago
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Cell division, diversity and organisation
1 Mitosis
1.1 Cell cycle consists of cell growth call interphase, and cell division called mitosis
1.1.1 During interphase, genetic material is copied and checked for errors, if there are errors the cell will kill itself to prevent mutations
1.2 Interphase: Genetic material is unravelled and copied and organelles are are replicated
1.3 Prophase: Chromosome condense, short and fat. Centrioles move to opposite ends and form the spindle. Nuclear envelope breaks down and chromosomes are in cytoplasm
1.4 Metaphase: Chromosomes line up along the middle and are attached by the spindle.
1.5 Anaphase: Centromeres divide and seperate the sister chromatids. Spindles contract pulling the centromere first/
1.6 Telophase:Nuclear envelope forms around the group of chromosome and cytoplasm divides.
2 Division and reproduction
2.1 Budding in yeast (asexual)
2.1.1 A bud forms at the surface, it undergoes interphase then mitosis. It then seperates from the the parent cell.
2.2 Meiosis creates genetically different cells. They start off with the full number of chromosomes but end up with half.
2.3 Homologous pair: One maternal and one paternal, same size and same genes
3 Stem cells and differentiation
3.1 Stem cells are unspecialised cells that can develop into any type of cell
3.2 Cells in bone marrow can differentiate to produce erythrocytes and neutrophils.
3.2.1 Cells in cambium differentiate into xylem and phloem
3.3 Animal cells
3.3.1 Neutrophils
3.3.2 Eythrocytes
3.3.3 Epithelial cells
3.3.4 Sperm cells
3.4 Plant cells
3.4.1 Palisade mesophyll cells
3.4.2 Root hair cells
3.4.3 Guard cells
4 Tissues, organs, systems
4.1 Squamous Epithelium
4.1.1 Single layer of flat cells lining a surface
4.2 Xylem tissue
4.2.1 Transports water and supports the plant
4.3 Phloem tissue
4.3.1 Transports sugars, contains sieve cells, companion cells and plant cells. End walls called sieve plates
4.4 Ciliated epithelium
4.4.1 Layer of cells covered in cilia.
4.5 Similar cells make a tissue. Different tissues make an organ and different organs make an organ system.
4.6 System of cooperation; transport system and communication system

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