Quotes/Numbers/References

Shams Uddin
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

This is a mind map to show the studies and results found throughout the course. I've included images next to the relevant points for illustrative purposes. Be sure to take a look at the additional notes I've made by clicking the "sticky note" icon on the top right corner of some of the bubbles!

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Shams Uddin
Created by Shams Uddin over 5 years ago
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Quotes/Numbers/References
1 Happiness
1.1 R. Kennedy - Our gross national product... measures everything, in short, except thar which makes life worthwhile
1.2 Easterlin Paradox: Happiness does not increase with income once basic needs arre fulfilled
1.3 Nun Study: among the less positive nuns, 2/3rds died before their 85th birthday. Among the happy nuns, 90% were still alive
1.4 Increase in my Income leads to a loss of everybody else's happiness by 30% of my own increase in happiness
1.5 Emp. Evidence from World Values Survey: Increase in average income only to raise average happiness in countries below around 15000 per head (John Helliwell)
1.6 Survey of 6000 from switzerland (1992): People older than 60 happier; Women not happier than men; foreigners are less happy (can't vote on legislation); people with higher education are happier...
1.6.1 Democratic rights ^ by 1 point increases H index by 0.028
2 Crime
2.1 -ve correlation between prison pop. and (BCS) crime rate in 90s

Annotations:

  • punishment heavier > seen as decrease in expected utility from crime - Crime rate (supply) decreases
2.2 Philipson and Posner (1996) - Empirical evidence shows more police means less insurance policies bought (significant and negative)

Annotations:

  • Policing up, Fear down, Self Protection Down -> people react to fea/perception of crime
2.3 Levitt (1997) - strong link between unemployment and property crime...weaker link between unemployment and violent crime

Annotations:

  • Slight proof that there is a need for reward to be monetary (as opposed to psychic etc)
2.4 Paper on CBT by Sara Heller et al. (2013) - Program participation reduced violent-crime arrests during the program year to 8.1 per 100 youth (a 44 percent reduction).

Annotations:

  • http://www.slate.com/blogs/moneybox/2013/05/08/heller_pollack_ander_and_ludwig_reducing_youth_violence_with_cognitive_behavioral.html
  • Study done in chicago with Jens Ludwig -
2.5 Eide (1999) - 10% increase in probability of being punished will redue crime by 7%, 10% increase in severity of punishment will reduce crime by 4%

Annotations:

  • People react more/are more sensitive to a higher risk of being caught.
2.6 F. Cornaglia and A Leigh (2011) - Empirical evidence suggests "Cost of crime through reducing the welbeing of non-victims may be substancial. Also, largest effect of violent crimes on smaller and more densely populated areas. Mesia coverage creates a multiplier effect.
2.7 Bentham (1781) "The Alarm"

Annotations:

  • The Alarm “The report of this robbery circulates from hand to hand, and spreads itself in the neighbourhood. It finds its way into the newspapers, and is propagated over the whole country. Various people, on this occasion, call to mind the danger which they and their friends, as it appears from this example, stand exposed to in travelling; especially such as may have occasion to travel the same road.”
2.8 Newfoundland, Australia with low crime even though it has low income

Annotations:

  • Maybe inequality is key
2.9 Freeman (1999) on "Porous Boundary"
2.9.1 youths shift between crime and work with some regularity
2.9.2 young offenders are engaged in an active process of income optimization
3 Economics
3.1 Becker (1992) "...what most distinguishes economics as a discipline from other disciplines in the social science is NOT its subject matter but its APPROACH. ”
3.2 Lazear (1999): a methodology that produces refutable implications and tests these implications using solid statistical techniques
3.3 Lazear (1999) Economic toolbx can be used to address a large variety of problems. drawn from a wide range of topics
4 Smoking
4.1 Canada (1993): Increased then reduced taxes sharply from fears of smuggling - smoking prevalence back to normal level
4.1.1 Better to focus on crime prevention
4.2 Adda and Cornaglia (2006): Smokers seem to adjust not only the number of cigarettes smoked but also the amount of nicotine they extract

Annotations:

  • question of how effective taxes are at reducing negative health effects
4.2.1 Tax elasticity of -0.2 on passive smokers (from decrease in # probably)
4.3 Some evidence from australia that plain packaging works
4.4 DeCicca et al. : Cigarette prices do not affect initiation at young ages