1.1.1 cultural refers to the norms, values, beliefs skills
and knowledge that a society regards as
important. this is transmitted by socialisation.
different classes socialise there children
differently, this may affect there achievement.
1.1.2 there are three factors responsive for
220.127.116.11 lack of intellectual stimulation- working class
parents are less likely to give their children
educational toys to stimulate their thinking, this
affects their intellectual development, when they
start school they are at a disadvantage.
18.104.22.168 speech codes- BASIL BERNSTEIN distinguish between the
elaborate and the restricted speech codes. the restricted:
working class, limited vocabulary, simple sentences and its
particularistic as it assumes the reader shared the same
meaning. the elaborative: middle class, wider vocabulary,
complex sentences and its universalists, the reader spells out
the meanings. the elaborative code is the one used by schools.
22.214.171.124 working class sub-cultures: three things: 1. immediate gratification, they want rewards
immediately and prefer not to have to work to gain them. 2. fatalism, this is the belief that
whatever will be will be. 3. low value on education, HYMAN argues that to working class
do not value education. DOUGLAS, claims that this is because of the lack of parental
support, his measures this bu their lack of attendance at parent evenings.
126.96.36.199 it ignores the importance of material factors
188.8.131.52 it ignores the importance of school factors
184.108.40.206 it blames the victim for failure
1.2 material deprivation
1.2.1 causes underachievement through factors such as: 1. poor housing, overcrowding or cold damp environment means that there
is no space for children to complete there homework, also living in temporary accommodation means frequent changes and
inconsistent studying. 2. poor diet, MARYLIN HOWARD claims that this ears to illness therefore lack of attendance at school. 3.
low income, this means lack of materials such as stationary, correct uniform or latest trends (bullying) and unable to afford
1.3 cultural capital
1.3.1 BOURDIEU argues that middle class pupils
are more successful because there parents
poses more capital, i.e. wealth.
2 school factors and achievement
2.1.1 meanings and definitions that we attach to people, e.g.
middle class- bright and motivated, BECKER argues that
these are considered as ideal pupils, teachers prefer to
2.2 the self fulfilling prophecy
2.2.1 a prophecy is a prediction made
about someone, e.g. he is stupid. as
teachers make students feel that this
is all they are capable of they do not
attempt to achieve higher.
2.3.1 this is when pupils are put together in classes due to their ability.
LACEY describes this as differentiation as it is a way of separating
them. those in th slower groups may be denied access to certain parts
of the curricula,, for example they may not be able to do a higher