Education: class differences in education

middlet57
Mind Map by middlet57, updated more than 1 year ago
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Mind Map on Education: class differences in education, created by middlet57 on 05/20/2014.
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Education: class differences in education
1 Achievement and home background
1.1 cultural deprivation
1.1.1 cultural refers to the norms, values, beliefs skills and knowledge that a society regards as important. this is transmitted by socialisation. different classes socialise there children differently, this may affect there achievement.
1.1.2 there are three factors responsive for underachievement-
1.1.2.1 lack of intellectual stimulation- working class parents are less likely to give their children educational toys to stimulate their thinking, this affects their intellectual development, when they start school they are at a disadvantage.
1.1.2.2 speech codes- BASIL BERNSTEIN distinguish between the elaborate and the restricted speech codes. the restricted: working class, limited vocabulary, simple sentences and its particularistic as it assumes the reader shared the same meaning. the elaborative: middle class, wider vocabulary, complex sentences and its universalists, the reader spells out the meanings. the elaborative code is the one used by schools.
1.1.2.3 working class sub-cultures: three things: 1. immediate gratification, they want rewards immediately and prefer not to have to work to gain them. 2. fatalism, this is the belief that whatever will be will be. 3. low value on education, HYMAN argues that to working class do not value education. DOUGLAS, claims that this is because of the lack of parental support, his measures this bu their lack of attendance at parent evenings.
1.1.3 criticisms
1.1.3.1 it ignores the importance of material factors
1.1.3.2 it ignores the importance of school factors
1.1.3.3 it blames the victim for failure
1.2 material deprivation
1.2.1 causes underachievement through factors such as: 1. poor housing, overcrowding or cold damp environment means that there is no space for children to complete there homework, also living in temporary accommodation means frequent changes and inconsistent studying. 2. poor diet, MARYLIN HOWARD claims that this ears to illness therefore lack of attendance at school. 3. low income, this means lack of materials such as stationary, correct uniform or latest trends (bullying) and unable to afford university fees.
1.3 cultural capital
1.3.1 BOURDIEU argues that middle class pupils are more successful because there parents poses more capital, i.e. wealth.
2 school factors and achievement
2.1 labelling
2.1.1 meanings and definitions that we attach to people, e.g. middle class- bright and motivated, BECKER argues that these are considered as ideal pupils, teachers prefer to teach these.
2.2 the self fulfilling prophecy
2.2.1 a prophecy is a prediction made about someone, e.g. he is stupid. as teachers make students feel that this is all they are capable of they do not attempt to achieve higher.
2.3 streaming
2.3.1 this is when pupils are put together in classes due to their ability. LACEY describes this as differentiation as it is a way of separating them. those in th slower groups may be denied access to certain parts of the curricula,, for example they may not be able to do a higher paper.
2.4 pupil subcultures
2.4.1 pro-school sub-culture- accept, respect, anti-school sub-culture, reject, disrespect.
2.4.2 status and sub-culture- LACEY says that people in lower stream, form a subculture as they feel that they are deprived of a stunted as they are labelled as failures.
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