Population

Lauren Pitcher
Mind Map by Lauren Pitcher, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Lauren Pitcher
Created by Lauren Pitcher over 2 years ago
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Description

A mindmap on population, population change and the impacts on resources.

Resource summary

Population
1 World Population Keywords
1.1 Natural Increase: Births outnumber deaths.
1.2 Natural decrease: deaths outnumber deaths.
1.3 Total fertility rate: the number of children born person 1000 women.
1.4 Age specific mortality: the total number of deaths to residents of a specified age or age group in a specified geographic area.
1.5 Infant mortality: the death of children under the age of one year.
1.6 Crude death rates: the number of deaths occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year.
1.7 Crude birth rates: the number of live births occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year.
1.8 Emigration: the act of leaving one's own country to settle permanently in another.
1.9 Immigration: the action of coming to live permanently in a foreign country.
1.10 Life expectancy: the average period that a person may expect to live.
2 Key Terms
2.1 Carrying capacity: the number of people that can be supported sustainably by available resources.
2.2 Optimum population: the population that achieves a given aim in the most satisfactory way.
2.3 Under population: there are too few people to develop resources fully.
2.4 Over population: too many people in an area relative to the resources and level of technology available.
3 China: One Child Policy
3.1 The policy was introduced because the government didn't have enough resources to support the high birth/fertility rate.
3.2 The positives of the policy is that it reduced the number of births. 400 million prevented.
3.3 The negatives of the policy is that there were: gender imbalances with more boys than girls, rises in abortions and an aging population.
4 Factors Influencing Population Change
4.1 Demographic
4.1.1 High birth rate, rate of natural increase, migration.
4.2 Social
4.2.1 Religion, marriage.
4.3 Economic
4.3.1 Wealth = lower fertility, expense/cost of a child, women independence/careers.
4.4 Political
4.4.1 Expansionist policies, anti-natalist policies - eg. China.
5 Demographic Transition Model
5.1 The DTM describes a sequence of changes over a period of time in the relationship between birth and death rates and overall population change.
6 Tin
6.1 Tin is a heavy metal and it is found in igneous rocks. It is recyclable and can be found in Cornwall, China and Indonesia.
6.2 Tin declined because of the high const of extraction and low world prices making extraction unprofitable. Tin deposits became part of general resource stock.
6.3 In 2004, prices soared. Cornwall attracted mining companies. 2007, south Crofty reopened - £50 million investment. 250 new skilled jobs.
7 Wind Energy
7.1 Wind energy is increasing because it is carbon neutral and renewable.
7.2 The best locations to harness this energy is Rhane in France, Ebro in Spain, Greece and Turkey.
7.3 The negatives of wind energy is that manufacturing, transportation and construction of turbines releases CO2.
8 Uranium
8.1 Provides raw material for nuclear weapons. Uranium 235. It was first used to colour glass. We can control nuclear fission inside a nuclear reactor to generate electricity. 17% of world's electricity is powered through the use of uranium.
9 Sustainable Processes
9.1 Substitution: the use of common/less valuable resources in place of rare/expensive resources.
9.2 Beneficiation: upgrading of a resource that was previously too costly eg. renewable energy.
9.3 Maximisation: use of a variety of methods that avoid waste and increase production of a resource.
9.4 Recycling: reprocessing waste materials.
9.5 Quotas: a limited or fixed number or amount of people or things.
9.6 Rationing: a fixed allowance of provisions or food.
10 Reasons for variation in energy supply
10.1 Physical
10.1.1 Relief, availability of resource, location.
10.2 Economic
10.2.1 Money, location , foreign investment.
10.3 Political
10.3.1 Permission, international agreements.
11 Water Supply in Western USA
11.1 The Reclamation Act allowed the building of dams, canals and HEP systems in the states in the west.
11.2 The Colordao River: source in Colorado, mouth in Mexico. Divided into upper and lower course in 1992.
11.3 The problems arising about the river's resources is that the demand in more than the supply. And the annual flow has reduced.
11.4 CAP was the Central Arizona Project. $4 billion investment to divert water from the river. Completed in 1992.
11.5 Stregies used to conserve water: recycling water in industry, more efficient toilet systems, changing from highly water dependent crops to less dependent crops.
12 Varying demand for resources
12.1 MEDC: low population growth but high standard of living. Resource use increases but technological advances and recycling provide resource efficiencies.
12.2 NIC: rate of population growth is declining but industrialisation leads to rapidly rising rates of resource use.
12.3 LEDC: high rate of population growth but poverty is a severe constraint on resource consumption.
13 Optimists/Pessimists
13.1 Neo-Malthusian's
13.1.1 Population increase -> demand for food -> increased mortality -> decreased fertility -> decrease in population growth.
13.2 Anti- Malthusian's
13.2.1 Population increase -> demand for food -> improvement in technology -> population growth continues.
14 Common Fisheries Policy
14.1 Management of the fishery industry in the EU. Regulates commercial, social and environmental aspects of the industry.
14.2 Tragedy of the commons is ownership of a resource leading to over-exploitation. TACs have solved this.
14.3 2003 introduced - total allowable catches, conservation, new vessels, sustainable aquaculture.
14.4 Total allowable catches is a set maximum quantity of fish that can be caught each year.
15 Common Agricultural Policy
15.1 Was introduced in the early 1960s, following a time when Western Europe's agriculture had been heavily damaged by years of war and food supplies could not be guaranteed. CAP guaranteed minimum crop prices and quotas on certain goods.
15.2 2003 - The new "single farm payments" are subject to "cross-compliance" conditions relating to environmental, food safety and animal welfare standards. The aim is to make more money available for environmental quality or animal welfare programmes.
15.3 10 new countries joined the EU - they have a greater dependency on farming as a source of income and employment.
15.4 World trade organisation: heavily criticised CAP. External tariffs denies LEDCs fair access to the large EU food markets.
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