Emotion and Cognition 2 - book

becky.waine
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Mind Map on Emotion and Cognition 2 - book, created by becky.waine on 05/16/2013.

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becky.waine
Created by becky.waine over 6 years ago
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Emotion and Cognition 2 - book
1 NEURAL SYSTEMS IN EMOTIONAL PROCESSING
1.1 EARLY ATTEMPTS
1.1.1 PAPEZ - 1937 - CIRCUIT THEORY OF BRAIN AND EMOTION - emotional responses have a network of brain regions, such as the hypothalamus, anterior thalamus, cingulate gyrus and the hippocampus
1.1.1.1 MACLEAN - 1949 - extended this emotional network to include the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex and portions of the basal ganglia. the LIMBIC SYSTEM as the emotional brain
1.1.2 EARLY ATTEMPTS tended to view emotion as a unitary concept that could be localised to one specific circuit, such as the limbic system
1.2 LATER ATTEMPTS
1.2.1 we no longer think that there is only one neural circuit of emotion. there are a number of regions that play a role in different emotional tasks.
1.2.2 AMYGDALA - in the medial temporal lobe. amygdala damage influences subtle deficits in fear processing
2 IMPLICIT EMOTI0ONAL LEARNING
2.1 FEAR CONDITIONING - form of classical conditioning where the unconditioned stimulus is aversive. light paried with foot shock, light presented alone will eventually starle the rat. can become UNPAIRED AGAIN, called EXTINCTION
2.1.1 damage tp the amygdala impairs conditioned fear response. the amygdala serves as a convergence area for information from multiple brain regions, allowing for formations underlying fear conditioning.
2.1.2 patients with amygdala damage fail to demonstrate an indirect CR. patient S.P. had bilateral amygdala damage, had her right amygdala removed to relieve epilepsy. S.P. UNABLE TO RECOGNISE FEAR
2.2 LE DOUX - 1996 - low road, pathway in which sensory information about a stimulus is projected to the thalamus, sneds a signal directly to the amygdala. ALSO.. high road, sensory information projected onto the amygdala through another cortical pathway referred to as the high road.
2.3 DOUBLE DISSOCIATION betwen patients who have amygdala lesions and patients with hippocampal lesions highlights the fact that the amygdala is necessary for implicit expression of emotional learning, but not all forms of emotional learning and memory
3 EXPLICIT EMOTIONAL LEARNING AND MEMORY
3.1 the amygdala interacts with other memory systems, such as the hippocampal memory system, when there are emotional events or information.
3.1.1 the amygdala can enhance the strength of explicit or declarative memories for emotional events my modulating the storage of these memories
3.1.1.1 the amygdala is critical for the ability to show a conditioned fear response during fear conditioning. the amygdala is critical for the indirect expression of a fear response when the emotional learning occursd explicitly
3.2 an arousal response influences the ability to store declarative or explicit memories. memory is enhanced by arousal
3.2.1 SAPOLSKY - 1992 - extreme arousal or chronic stress may actually impair performance of the hippocampal memory system
4 SOCIAL RESPONSES
4.1 the human amygdala is responsible for normal responses to social stimuli, for example, facial expressions. amygdala involved in processing the facial expression of fear with S.M.
4.1.1 ADOLPHS ET AL. - 2005 - S.M. didn't derive information from the eyes. the amygdala appears to be an integral part of a system that automatically directs visual attention to the eyes when encountering any facial expressions
4.2 IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST - GREENWALD - 1998 - measures the degree to which social groups are automatically associated with positive and negative evaluations
4.2.1 PHELPS ET AL. - 2000 - amygdala was activated when white americans viewed unfamiliar black faces
4.2.2 subjects who showed more racial bias measured by the IAT showed more amygdala activity during the presentation of black faces. HOWEVER, It might be critical for the indirect evaluation of race, important for same vs. other race.
5 OTHER BRAIN AREAS AND EMOTION
5.1 ANGER
5.1.1 BLAIR ET AL. - 1999 - the RIGHT ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX active with angry but not sad faces
5.2 SADNESS
5.2.1 BLAIR ET AL - 1999 - LEFT AMYGDALA AND RIGHT TEMPORAL POLE associated with the intensity of sad expressions
5.3 DISGUST
5.3.1 CALDER ET AL - 2000 - INSULA is essential to both detection and experience of disgust. insula damage unable to detect disgust
6 SUMMARY
6.1 earlier research and theories viewed emotion as seperate from cognition, it became clear that they could be studied and understood seperately

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